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1980 Planet Ceres Atlantic hurricane season

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1980 Planet Ceres Atlantic hurricane season
First storm formed July 24
Last storm dissipated December 10
Strongest storm Gordon; 190 mph, 891 mbar
Total storms 16
Hurricanes 8
Major hurricanes 4
Total damages $7.205 billion (1980 USD), $18.8 billion (2008 USD)+
Total fatalities 1,904+
The 1980 Planet Ceres Atlantic hurricane season started on June 1, and ended on November 30. It was the second-most active season in Planet Ceres history at the time, with 16 tropical depressions, 16 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes.

Storms

Main article: List of storms in the 1980 Planet Ceres Atlantic hurricane season

Tropical Storm Allen

Tropical Storm Allen TS
Barry 1960
Duration July 24—July 28
Intensity 50 mph, 1000 mbar

On July 24, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. Quickly organizing, it became Tropical Depression One later that day, and on July 25, TD One strengthened into Tropical Storm Allen, the first storm of the season. Peaking with 50 mph winds, Allen steadily maintained strength until July 27, when Allen began to weaken due to wind shear late in the day. On July 28, Allen weakened to a tropical depression, and then dissipated that evening. Allen never affected land, and therefore did not cause any damages or deaths.

Hurricane Bonnie

Hurricane Bonnie 3
Bonnie 1980
Duration August 1—August 12
Intensity 115 mph, 959 mbar

Hurricane Bonnie hit Florida in early August, causing $100 million (1980 USD) and killing 12 people.

Tropical Storm Charley

Tropical Storm Charley TS
Charley 1980
Duration August 10—August 13
Intensity 65 mph, 997 mbar

Tropical Storm Charley hit Texas, causing $70 million (1980 USD) and killing 4 people.

Hurricane Diana

Hurricane Diana 1
Diana 1980
Duration August 16—August 20
Intensity 90 mph, 975 mbar

Diana never hit land, and was not responsible for any damages or deaths.

Hurricane Edward

Hurricane Edward 4
Edward 1980
Duration August 25—September 4
Intensity 145 mph, 934 mbar

Main article: Hurricane Edward (1980)

On August 23, a tropical wave moved off the coast of Africa. Under favorable conditions, the wave slowly became more organized, and became Tropical Depression Five early on August 25, and into Tropical Storm Edward 24 hours later. Edward slowly strengthened until August 28, when Edward stopped strengthening for a short while. Then, on August 29, Edward strengthened again and became the third hurricane of the season that afternoon. More favorable conditions prevailed, and Edward became a Category 2 hurricane on August 30. Then, Edward encountered highly favorable conditions that evening, and rapidly strengthened into a major hurricane overnight, the second of the season. During the evening on August 31, Edward reached a peak of 145 mph winds, a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, just to the north of Hispaniola.

Heading on a westward track, Edward threatened to continue strengthening and hit southern Florida, near Miami, as a strong Category 4 hurricane. On this track, Edward would have caused major damage in southern Florida before entering the Gulf of Mexico, potentially reaching Category 5 intensity by September 3. Edward would then hit Louisiana as a Category 4 or even Category 5 hurricane on September 4, causing severe damage to New Orleans. With two major U.S. cities under fire, mandatory evacuations were issued for the Miami area in advance of Hurricane Edward. U.S. Guard troops were sent to southern and central Florida to supply the region with survival supplies and hurricane preparedness kits, not to mention over 30 truckloads of food and beverages. And late on September 1, after all that preparation, Edward stunned forecasters in a turn for the miraculous. Not only did Edward slow down to eventually change direction to largely miss the area, but Edward also did the opposite of what forecasters predicted by weakening, instead of strengthening. By the afternoon on September 2, Edward had weakened to a Category 3 hurricane as it changed direction to the northeast. However, southern Florida's good luck wound up spelling bad luck for the northern Bahamas.

On September 2, Edward hit Grand Bahama directly as a Category 3 hurricane. Sustained winds upon impact were 125 mph, with gusts recorded as high as 140 mph, and possibly even higher. The powerful winds uprooted trees, disrupted power, and damaged numerous homes. Meanwhile, the rain and storm surge from Edward combined to cause serious flooding throughout the island. Meteorological instruments were destroyed by extreme winds, as many unsuspecting residents of the island were caught by surprise by Edward's sudden turn to the northeast, resulting in the issuance of a hurricane warning less than 12 hours before hurricane-force winds began battering the island. The result was over 10,000 people trapped in the path of a major hurricane, surrounded by high water and winds of at least 100 mph. Residents of Grand Bahama had expected Edward to continue westward into southern Florida, not to take a sharp turn toward them at he last minute. And these residents were aware that Edward had already hit Long Island, the southern Exuma Cays, and Andros Island, all while Edward was still a Category 4 hurricane. Now these residents were stranded in what they knew would be a serious and life-threatening situation.

On September 3, Edward's powerful winds and driving rain finally let up as Edward raced northeast, becoming extratropical the next morning. Severe damage had been left behind. Although the outcome was dwarfed by Hurricane Gordon just 10 days later, Hurricane Edward had caused $100 million (1980 USD) in damage, and 19 people lost their lives in the storm. Edward was the second storm in less than a year to hit the Bahamas as such a powerful hurricane, as Hurricane Henry the last November had also hit the island nation as a Category 4 hurricane. Also, although Edward turned away at the last minute, Florida itself sustained $100 million (1980 USD) and 15 deaths.

The name Edward was very nearly retired the following spring. Although the Bahama government had not planned to retire the name, residents of islands that were hit by Edward were furious about this, demanding that the name Edward be retired on the grounds that the storm had caused severe damage across multiple islands, claimed numerous lives, and caused thousands of residents to lose everything. Due to the clashing ideas of the people and the government, a poll went underway. Residents of Florida and the Bahamas had the choice to either vote for or against the retirement of the name Edward via voting machines. By a slight margin, the majority of voters voted against the name's retirement, and the government of the Bahamas kept their plan to let the name Edward slide without retirement. As a result, the name Edward was not retired, and was reused in 1986, 1992, and 1998. However, the name Edward would later be retired due to the 1998 storm, and was replaced in 2004 with Earl.

Hurricane Frances

Hurricane Frances 2
Frances 1980
Duration September 2—September 7
Intensity 105 mph, 970 mbar

Stayed out to sea, but killed 4 people when it sank a fishing vessel.

Hurricane Gordon

Hurricane Gordon 5
Gordon 1980
Duration September 6—September 17
Intensity 190 mph, 891 mbar

Main article: Hurricane Gordon

Hurricane Gordon was the most powerful storm of the season. It developed from a tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa in early September. As the wave continued over favorable conditions for strengthening, it became more organized, and was designated Tropical Depression Seven on September 6. As warm waters and weak wind shear prevailed, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Gordon later that day. Gordon was a relatively small storm at the time, as sustained tropical storm-force winds extended outward only 25 miles from the center. However, Gordon was not a small or weak storm for very long. On September 8, Gordon became better organized, and was able to strengthen. Then, on the afternoon of September 9, Gordon strengthened into the fifth hurricane of the season as it approached the Windward Islands. That evening and into the night, Gordon passed through the chain without directly hitting any islands, which is somewhat rare for a storm passing through the area. Strengthening on the way, Gordon became a Category 2 hurricane on September 10, the first day of the two-day climatological peak of the season, and remained steady in intensity for a short while. So far, so good. But not for long.

On September 11, Gordon encountered increasingly favorable conditions in the central Caribbean Sea, and intensified into the third major hurricane of the season around midday. Suddenly, Gordon began to explode. By nightfall, warm waters and very little wind shear in the Caribbean Sea had provided Hurricane Gordon with vast fuel, causing dire consequences before long.

Before the night was over, Gordon was already a Category 4 hurricane, and was still strengthening. Then, on September 12, Gordon became a juggernaut Category 5 monster, and was heading straight for the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. To make matters worse, Gordon was still gathering strength, and its rapid forward speed of nearly 20 mph cut back on time to prepare for such a brutality. Then, early in the morning on September 13, came zero hour.

Reaching peak winds of 190 mph just before landfall, Gordon slammed into the island of Cozumel at full force, essentially obliterating almost everything within the radius of 200+ mph wind gusts, giving Gordon the power of a high-end F3 tornado on the Fujita scale, a high-end EF-4 or possibly a low-end EF-5 tornado on the Enhanced Fujita scale. Luckily, the range of these incredibly powerful winds was small; the eye of Hurricane Gordon upon landfall was only 5-7 miles wide, and peak winds extended only 1 1/2 miles from the eyewall. But the winds pushed a different monster onshore: storm surge. The surge from Gordon in particular reached up to 29 feet, decimating anything along the coast where Gordon hit land. After several fatal hours, Gordon left the island, only to make a second Category 5 landfall on the mainland Yucatan Peninsula.

At this landfall, winds were only down to 180-185 mph, which is still enough to cause incredible devastation. Hundreds, possibly even thousands of buildings were lost from either the extremely destructive winds, or the mammoth flooding. Buildings were destroyed. Trees were toppled, in some cases like they were toothpicks. Utilities suffered severe damage. And in nearby Cancun, the tourist industry was deeply affected. Even as Gordon quickly lost steam over land, torrential rainfall contributed to lethal flooding and mudslides. For the Yucatan Peninsula, the mayhem would not end until overnight, when Gordon finally exited the area around midnight as a Category 3 hurricane.

The damage was catastrophic. Gordon left an eight mile-wide swath of nothing but devastation and ruin, passing straight through central Cozumel. Also hard hit was the Yucatan's jungle. Numerous animals were killed, hundreds of trees were destroyed, and Gordon was responsible for the extinction of two rare species that were local to the area. And Gordon was still not yet finished.

Hurricane Gordon regained strength in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, and became a Category 4 hurricane again on the evening of September 14. During the morning on September 15, Gordon made its third and final landfall in the state of Tamaulipas with 140 mph winds, not far south of the state's border with Texas. Although the United States was spared a direct hit, Gordon was large enough to send hurricane-force winds into the extreme southernmost towns and cities in Texas. After landfall, Gordon quickly weakened while dumping torrential rains and producing powerful winds. In the early hours of the morning of September 17, Gordon finally dissipated over the mountainous terrain of extreme northern Mexico.

Even though the Windward Islands, Jamaica, and mainland Mexico had sustained significant damage, totaling to $1 billion (1980 USD), Cozumel and the Yucatan Peninsula were by far hardest-hit. The extreme swath of destruction there from Gordon's two Category 5 landfalls amounted to a staggering $4.5 billion (1980 USD), making Gordon one of the costliest hurricanes to ever hit Mexico on Planet Ceres. The hurricane had a large human cost as well; the incredibly powerful winds, storm surge, flooding, and mudslides killed over 500 people throughout Gordon's path, making Gordon the costliest, and the second-deadliest, storm of the season. The economic blow to the Yucatan Peninsula was felt throughout the region, and would take years to recover from.

Five years later, Hurricane Stan hit Cozumel directly at full force (a low-end Category 3 major hurricane), but caused minimal damage compared to Hurricane Gordon, thanks to Gordon's devastating effects on this area of Mexico teaching residents to be prepared for severe hurricanes, although a hurricane causing destruction on a scale similar to that of Hurricane Gordon is unlikely to hit the area soon. This wariness, however, cut back the human cost of Hurricane Stan down to under 30 people in the region, a blind minuscule disruption compared to Hurricane Gordon, and with Stan, damages also failed to reach the billions (1985 USD), including all areas Stan affected put together, which itself includes the Yucatan Peninsula.

Tropical Storm Hillary

Tropical Storm Hillary TS
Hillary 1980
Duration September 10—September 13
Intensity 60 mph, 997 mbar

Affected Bermuda with light to moderate rainfall but nothing else. No damages or deaths reported.

Tropical Storm Isidore

Tropical Storm Isidore TS
Isidore 1980
Duration September 20—September 22
Intensity 40 mph, 1007 mbar

Hit Nicaragua at peak intensity, killing 3 people and causing $10 million (1980 USD) in damage.

Hurricane Jeanne

Hurricane Jeanne 2
Jeanne 1980
Duration September 29—October 5
Intensity 100 mph, 973 mbar

Killed 14 people in the Cape Verde islands as a tropical storm, causing $100 million (1980 USD) in damage. No other land affects but killed 6 more people by destroying a fishing vessel in a manner similar to how Hurricane Frances did so.

Tropical Storm Kevin

Tropical Storm Kevin TS
Kevin 1980
Duration October 7—October 14
Intensity 70 mph, 990 mbar

Did not affect land, and therefore did not cause any damage or deaths, but earned an ACE of 7.25, which is unusually high for a storm failing to reach hurricane strength.

Hurricane Linda

Hurricane Linda 1
Linda 1980
Duration October 15—October 20
Intensity 75 mph, 988 mbar

Main article: Hurricane Linda (1980)

Caused $100 million (1980 USD) in damage, and 14 deaths, when it made landfall in South Carolina. Although operationally a strong tropical storm, Linda was re-analyzed in late November to have briefly become a hurricane just before landfall.

Tropical Storm Mitch

Tropical Storm Mitch TS
Mitch 1980
Duration October 22—October 24
Intensity 45 mph, 1002 mbar

Hit Belize but caused only 3 deaths and minimal damage, totaling to only $20 million (1980 USD).

Hurricane Nina

Hurricane Nina 4
Nina 1980
Duration October 31—November 11
Intensity 135 mph, 944 mbar

Main article: Hurricane Nina

Nina was a destructive and long-lasting Category 4 hurricane. Although a Category 4 for only 18 hours in all of its lifetime, Nina managed to devastate Haiti as a strong Category 3 hurricane, hitting near Gonaives on November 5, although Nina did threaten to strike as a Category 4. Sharply weakening over Haiti, Nina emerged into the Atlantic Ocean as a Category 2 hurricane, although Nina continued to weaken offshore due to cold waters, and was a tropical storm by the time it made impact in Florida. Although a weak tropical storm when it re-emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on November 8, Nina regained strength here, and was a hurricane again when it made its final landfall in Texas on November 10 with 95 mph winds. Nina dissipated the next day.

The effects of Hurricane Nina were particularly devastating in Haiti. There, over 1,000 people died, and thousands more were homeless. In all, over 1,200 deaths were reported, with as many as 500 unaccounted for, and $1.1 billion (1980 USD) in damage.

Aside from being a destructive and deadly hurricane, Nina's odd track and late-season intensity made it a meteorological enigma. When Nina reached Category 4 intensity on November 4, it made 1980 the second of two consecutive years to have a Category 4 hurricane in November (1979's Hurricane Henry was a Category 5 in November), the only time on record this has ever happened on Planet Ceres. Also, Nina took a bizarre path; first, Nina went south of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, swerving through the Jamaica channel to take a hard right into northern Haiti, passing through Middle Caicos, turning to the northwest toward South Carolina, and then to the southwest into Florida. After that, Nina nearly went southward back into the Caribbean Sea, but at the last minute drifted eastward toward western Cuba (the Bay of Guadiana area, specifically), and at the last minute before impact there, Nina turned northwest back into the Gulf of Mexico, accomplishing a clockwise loop. Then, Nina continued northwest into Texas, striking as a Category 2 hurricane. After this landfall, that was that.

Due to the devastation in Haiti, the name Nina was retired after this season.

Tropical Storm Otto

Tropical Storm Otto TS
Otto 1980
Duration November 12—November 17
Intensity 70 mph, 996 mbar

A November storm, Otto hit Jamaica as a weak tropical storm before dissipating near Cuba. Damages totaled to $5 million (1980 USD), and 1 person died.

Tropical Storm Patsy

Tropical Storm Patsy TS
Patsy 1980
Duration December 6—December 10
Intensity 70 mph, 991 mbar

Main article: Tropical Storm Patsy (1980)

A rare December storm that stayed out to sea, causing no damage and claiming no lives.























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