American Exits Wiki

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"Welcome to the wiki-timeline for the University of Washington's English 361: U.S. Political Culture 1865-present! Here we will collaboratively assemble a timeline of relevant dates for our study of the linkages between Exodus and Abolition in the post-Civil War era. I have begun the process by seeding the timeline with some key dates and figures, but this list is hardly exhaustive. So, in wiki fashion, add, edit, and make the knowledge we need to understand this vibrant, often contestatory, history!"


  • 1609 First African laborers imported to Virginia
  • 1776 Declaration of Independence
    • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
  • 1787 U.S. Constitution
  • 1791-1804 Haitian Revolution
    • Led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, the most successful African slave rebellion in the Western Hemisphere. Haiti (then known as Saint-Domingue) gains independence from French rule, becoming the second independent republic in the hemisphere after the U.S.
  • 1807 British end slave trade
  • 1817 American Colonization Society (ACS) founded
  • 1822 ACS establish Liberia as place to send formerly enslaved blacks
  • 1831 Nat Turner Rebellion
  • 1832-1912 Edward Wilmot Blyden
  • 1832 Noted Abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison publishes critique of ACS, entitled “Thoughts on African Colonization”
  • 1832 Diplomatic Relations open between the U.S. and Egypt
  • 1833 Slavery ended in the British Empire
  • 1839 Samuel Morton publishes Crania Americana
  • 1844 Samuel Morton publishes Crania Aegyptiaca
  • 1847 Americo-Liberian settlers declare the independence of Republic of Liberia
  • 1854 Josiah Nott publishes Types of Mankind
  • 1859-1930 Pauline Hopkins
  • 1861-1865 Civil War
  • 1863 Emancipation Proclamation
  • 1863-1877 Reconstruction
  • 1865 13th Amendment
    • “Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime where of the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.”
  • 1868 14th Amendment
    • “All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.”
  • 1868-1963 W.E.B. Du Bois
  • 1876-1965 Jim Crow
    • Legal and extra-legal means of maintaining racially segregated spaces in the United States
  • 1882-1914 Western Europe’s “Scramble for Africa”
  • 1887-1940 Marcus Garvey
  • 1887 Blyden publishes Christianity, Islam and the Negro Race
  • 1880-1930 The “Era of Lynching,” killing almost 2500 African Americans
  • 1890 William James publishes "The Hidden Self" in the March issue of Scribner's Magazine
  • 1889-1948 Claude McKay
  • 1891-1960 Zora Neale Hurston
  • 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson, “separate but equal”
  • 1898 Blyden publishes “The Jewish Question,” two years after the founder of Jewish Zionism, Theodor Herzl, publishes The Jewish State
  • 1900 Pan-African Conference in London
  • 1902 Meroe excavated in Sudan by British Museum archaeologist E.A. Wallis Budge, following earlier “discoveries” in 1834 and 1844
  • 1902-1903 Pauline Hopkins publishes Of One Blood in Colored American
  • 1903 W.E.B. Du Bois publishes Souls of Black Folk
  • 1908 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) founded
  • 1914-1919 World War I
  • 1914 Marcus Garvey founds United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
  • 1914-1993 Herman Poole Blount, aka Sun Ra
  • 1915-1934 U.S. occupy Haiti
  • 1919-1930s Harlem Renaissance
  • 1919-1946 League of Nations
  • 1919 Treaty of Versailles
  • 1919 First Pan-African Congress
  • 1919 Claude McKay publishes "If We Must Die"
  • 1921-1923 Warren G. Harding is 29th U.S. President
  • 1921 Second Pan-African Congress
  • 1922 The Communist International gains interest in the “Negro Problem”
  • 1923 Third Pan-African Congress
  • 1925-1965 Malcolm X
  • 1927 Fourth Pan-African Congress
  • 1929 Claude McKay publishes Banjo: A Story Without a Plot
  • 1929-1968 Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • 1930 Nation of Islam founded by Wallace Fard Muhammad in Detroit
  • 1935-1941 Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian Occupation
  • 1938- Ishmael Reed
  • 1939 Zora Neale Hurston publishes Moses Man of the Mountain
  • 1939 Sigmund Freud publishes Moses and Monotheism
  • 1939-1945 World War II
  • 1945 Fifth Pan-African Congress
  • 1945 United Nations founded
  • 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • 1945-1981 Bob Marley
  • 1947-2006 Octavia Butler
  • 1954 Brown v. Board of Education
  • 1955 Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • 1957 Ghana declares independence from the United Kingdom
  • 1959 Cuban Revolution
  • 1960 Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) founded
  • 1961- Barack Obama
  • 1962 Jamaica gains independence
  • 1963-1975 U.S. War in Vietnam
  • 1964 Civil Rights Act
  • 1965 Voting Rights and Immigration Reform Acts
  • 1965-1968 Racial uprisings throughout the U.S.
  • 1966 “Black Power” and founding of Black Panther Party
  • 1967 Loving v. Virginia: the last anti-miscegenation law, in Virginia, is ruled unconstitutional
  • 1972 Ishmael Reed publishes Mumbo Jumbo
  • 1974 Sun Ra releases Space is the Place
  • 1976 Bicentennial of Declaration of Independence
  • 1979 Octavia Butler publishes Kindred
  • 1988 Jamaica begins its bobsled team.
  • 2009 Inauguration of Barack Obama

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