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Bioremediation Assignment:CC:EX

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1:In a residential area of Prince Albert, Saskatchewan a contamination of Creosote was found 15 to 17 feet down in both public and private areas. An old drainage channel thought to be used as a sewer was found to be carrying contamination from nearby wood treatment sites. (http://www.gov.sk.ca/news?newsId=ba1935a9-5df7-45a0-8170-831e7b53d81a)

2:Perhaps its biggest success story is the four-acre Superfund site located in Visalia, California. For over 80 years, Southern California Edison used the site to treat utility poles with creosote, which caused thousands of gallons of the toxic chemical to leak into the ground, reaching depths of 100 feet. The pump and treat method was started in Visalia in 1976 to clean up the site. It removed only 10 pounds of pollutants per week over a 20-year period, and would have taken about two hundred years to complete. Then they started steam cleaning at the site in 1998 and removed 300,000 pounds of creosote from the site in the first six weeks of operation - a rate of 46,000 pounds per week. More than 1.2 million pounds of creosote have now been removed from the site, which will be completely remediated by 2000 - only two years after initiating steam cleaning.(http://www.acfnewsource.org/environment/steam_cleaning.html)

3:(New York, NY) After removing more than 450,000 tons of contaminated soil and cleaning up nearly 100 residential and commercial properties, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) today announced that its work is done at the Federal Creosote Superfund site in Manville, New Jersey. The neighborhood is now successfully restored and the risks stemming from creosote in the soil have been eliminated.(http://yosemite.epa.gov/opa/admpress.nsf/8b770facf5edf6f185257359003fb69e/315dac28180fb65c8525740500607a19!OpenDocument)

4:Wood preservatives (creosote and pentachlorophenol) were discharged into two unlined pits near Pensacola, Florida, for more than 80 years. The contaminants seeped into an underlying sand and gravel aquifer and created an underground waste plume 1,000 feet long. This study is focused on the occurrence, transport,and degradation of organic contaminants associated with the wood preservatives. The study demonstrated the ability of naturally occurring microorganisms to degrade many of the organic contaminants to less toxic compounds.(http://toxics.usgs.gov/sites/pensa_page.html)

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