Mary Jo Pugh: Providing Reference Services for Archives & Manuscripts, 2005
Chapter 1: Looking Backward, Looking Forward
Technology & Archives • Not the researcher has desktop access to information, power of computation. Digital = more sharing and more interaction. • Connectivity of computers. Web has led to profound implications for providing reference services. It was increased the archivists’ ability to provide intellectual access. • Archival system is no longer predicated on an interaction between the user and an archivist. Researchers can directly access finding aids and locate documents online. Email communication. • Information seeking behaviors are changing rapidly as information is "born digital." We need to understand the info needs and research methods. Attention is a scarce resource. • Concern about the popular illusion that everything is available online. Combined with the Principle of Least Effort. Archivists must connect with personal networks so users will see archives as an information resource. • Users still need archivists to help them understand how to use archives: determine a search strategy for approaching archival materials & provide a context for understanding. Chat, collaborative reference tools, video interfaces. • Legal access: questions and concerns about more information online. • Use tech tools to administer the research room (automation of registration forms), analyze data about the use of archives. • Reference archivists may be called on to provide information rather than records, design user interfaces, refer to databases/documents that remain in the custody of the creating agency. We need to be present at the creation of information systems. • Improve archives accessibility and value: make collective memory of organization readily usable by current staff, analyze common characteristics of information-seeking behavior of user groups to improve finding aids, reach out to potential users.
Professional Changes • Primary point of access used to be a card catalog, but automation changed everything. • What remains the same is that reference archivists and users share an enthusiasm for historical research because they want to understand the past, both to make sense of the present and to plan for the future. • Recorded memory is vital for cultural continuity. Keeping and using the past is central to our concept of human cultures and civilization. "Reference archivists contribute to individual growth and understanding, to the solution of practical social problems, to scholarly research, and to cultural continuity. They empower individuals and groups by helping them to link their past and future. Reference work calls for ingenuity and perseverance. It depends on the virtues of patience, attentiveness, understanding, and sympathy. At its best, reference work brings forth the meaningful association of information and insights that result in new understanding of the human conditions. Reference archivists breathe a second life into records and do indeed 'let them feed the mind of Man.'" (p7)
Chapter 2: Reference Services in Archives
What Are Archives? • Documents = "talking things." They are artifacts that we delegate the task of speaking for us. • Records = documents kept or created in the course of practical activity. All records are utilitarian. Evidence. Record systems consist of 3 elements: communication patterns, recording technologies, and documents. • Personal Records: historical manuscripts. • Organizational Records • Archives = all the records of continuing usefulness created in the course of daily activity, whether organizational or personal. Archivists are concerns with records as evidence of action and for the information they contain.
Why Keep Archives? • Institutional memory: administrative use, public use, research.
How Has the Use of Archives Changed through Time? • Early archives = records of the government, used by sovereigns and servants. • French Revolution led to the public use of government archives. Archives = property of the people. • In the US this is the "public archives tradition." The first true state archives = 1901 in Alabama. National Archives founded in 1934. • Modern manuscript repositories = descendents of medieval monasteries and universities. • In the 19th century university libraries, manuscript libraries, and historical societies began to collect unpublished records created in the course of private activity (diaries, notes, letters). Manuscript repositories = usually only provided access to scholars. • US = private historical society = papers of prominent families and edited/published manuscripts. This was in direct conflict with the 19th century described above. This conflict led to confusion of archival policies regarding access to materials and the use of materials. • Since the 1960s, there has been an increase in open access to the broader public. This has led to a change in the archivist's role from custodial to activist.
Access to Archives • Intellectual Access: identifying & locating records likely to contain info. • Legal Access: authority/permission to use, confidentiality, fair/equitable access to archives. • Physical Access: opportunity to examine documents.
What are the Dimensions of Reference Services in Archives? • Reference services, broadly conceived, are the activities by which archivists bring users and records together to meet user needs. The fundamental elements of archival reference services are: intellectual elements (A&D, reference services), human dimension (interpersonal), administrative elements. • Reference Services in Archives Provide: o Information about the repository o Information about holdings o Information from holdings o Information about records creators o Referrals to other repositories or resources o Information about laws and ethics regarding the use of information o Instruction in using records o Education about the research process o Physical access to holdings o Copies, permissions, and loans from holdings • Bruce Dearstyne says we should focus on researcher services, a more active function, in which staff members encourage research use, actively assist users, and evaluate use to improve it. He divides services into research and reference, then contrasts them. Research services = user-oriented. Reference services = custodial-oriented. o Research [A] vs. reference [B] = different focus [I'll type A & B for simplicity sake] o A = use is the main rationale for archival work, B = use is one of several rationales o A = information on users is essential for program planning. B = information on users is interesting, but of secondary importance for program planning. o A = systematic gathering and analysis of user information. B = researchers are merely counted. o A = marketing is a priority. B = marketing is secondary o A = Promoting use/ researcher services are regarded as program priorities. B = Promoting use/ researcher services are secondary to appraisal and other functions. o A = subject indexing fosters retrieval. B = reliance on provenance as a means of retrieval. o A = finding aids and services are geared to users' needs. B = reference is mainly educating users to appreciate records, contexts, and how the repository works. • Intellectual Elements: o Facilitating research: use finding aids, use records and descriptive tools, refer researchers to sources beyond the repository, teach rules of repositories, share information about legal and physical access, share knowledge about creators, provide context, share/educate @ technologies. There is a continuing interaction between archivist and users until the end. o Educating the archivist: your own research @ the institution allows you to be a better ref archivist. Knowledge about creator, forms and functions of records, context of finding aids, interpret information in records, locating/synthesizing/disseminating archival information through exhibitions/publications/speeches. Archivists are users themselves. o Educating users: In research room and groups through public programs. Few users have experience with primary sources & most are unprepared for the complexity of archival sources, finding aids, and archival practice/theory basics provide a better intellectual framework for user. Educating users to make better use of archives = an essential part of reference work. Public programs = orientation sessions, workshops, hand-outs, or introductory slide/video presentations extend ability of ref archivist to help users be more efficient. • Human dimensions of reference services: archival reference can be personal, need good communication (vital). o Very personalized, good communication critical o Verbal & non-verbal must be congruent o Careful re: communication of security provisions so users don't think you are accusing them of being a thief or not worthy of using the materials. o Users & archivists may have different expectations about appropriate role of archivist and the amount of time required to locate information. Archivists may want to educate the user, the user might want to be given information directly. o Policies and priorities must be clearly communicated. Review regularly to recognize changing public and user needs. o Research in archives requires an effective partnership between the archivist and user. Sensitivity, clarity, and a genuine spirit of public service are needed to ensure successful interpersonal relationship in arch ref services. • Administrative components of ref services o Daily tasks and managing staff can be most time consuming. o Admin tasks include: receiving, identifying, orienting, registering users; locating and paging materials; supervising copying and loans. o Daily practice must be grounded in admin policy. o Identify appropriate policies and efficient procedures, ensuring fair and equitable treatment for all users = important managerial tasks. o Advocate user needs in repository planning, relay user information to other repository staff. o Ref arch = at the intersection of users, finding aids, repository staff, and records. Therefore, they must balance and integrate the intellectual, interpersonal, and administrative elements of reference services to meet the needs of users, protect records, and promote the most effective use of repository resources. • Promoting Use of Archives: Outreach and Advocacy o Touches on funding, donor relations, acquisitions, and use. o Users can be a resource for repository: may identify records of enduring value and work to preserve them. May volunteer. may contribute to outreach. o Develop varied and vocal constituents to ensure future resources. Id what archives gives parent org. o Think creatively and aggressively when it comes to publicity. o Serendipity of research. • Ethics o Balance between helping users, protecting creators of records, and 3rd parties. o Respect the confidentiality of reference interview and divulge details of users' research only with permission. o Policies and training of staff is key.
Chapter 3: Identifying Uses & Users of Archives Continuing Usefulness of Records • Primary Uses of records: Schellenberg says organizations & individuals create records to carry out administrative, fiscal, economic, social, legal, or other activities = "primary values" of the records. • Secondary Uses of Records: Informational Value, Evidential Value, Intrinsic Value. o Informational = value that records contain about people, events, objects, or places. Records capture this information. o Evidential = value of the information (or evidence) that records provide about their creators, activities, or actions that generated the records. Much of value comes from context, archives reveal patterns of action and documentation accountability. Evidence in archives answers the question "What did she know and when did she know it?" o Intrinsic = value records have as artifacts (symbols, tangible links to the past). I.e. Declaration of Independence original document. The Uses of Archives • Direct Uses of Archives = occurs when someone obtains information from a records or draws on a record as evidence of the activity that it documents. Users are people with a need/wish to know information found in records of enduring value. People who come into contact with documents from repository. • Indirect Uses of Archives = Users are the potential beneficiaries of the historical information found in archives. May never enter archives or archives web site, but benefit from archival information or using the varied products arising from their direct use. Multiplier effect = through a relatively small number of researchers, their work is transmitted to many, their information affects how others think about themselves and their past. Understanding Individual Needs • Research purpose in part determined by whether research is motivated by work or personal research. Personal vs. extrinsic motivation. Purpose also determines time commitment and when they can visit. • Intended use affects the information sought, appropriate form & genre of materials • Type of question: factual & interpretive • Experience & preparation: need archivist's assistance with research process, bibliographic reference tools. Identifying Vocational User Groups: Using Archives for "Profit" • Staff of parent org: archives = institutional memory, often factual inquiries, requires a known document. Establish an image of usefulness. Let staff know you are there (brochures, tours, exhibition, celebrations). • Staff members of other org: these professionals are often direct users linking archival sources to indirect users. Films, documentaries = disseminate information to the public. Photos used in publications, etc. Many have grand expectations of ease of use, the reality of researching in an archive may lead to frustration. • Scholars: interpretive rather than factual. Archivists share information about holdings through OCLC & RLIN, by posting finding aids to the web. Often learn about resources through footnotes/bibliographies and conversations in informal networks rather than archival guides and finding aids; therefore, the archivist must go beyond and become part of scholarly networks by going to conferences and publishing in scholarly association journals/newsletters. Repositories can serve as intellectual centers for scholarships: organize roundtables and seminars for works in progress, sponsor conferences for scholars and archivists to discuss research trends or common concerns about documentations. • Students: Working with documents demonstrates the complexity of the past. Help appreciate historical documents and archival institutions (future voters). Planning reference services for students requires an understanding of types of assistance needed. Core research strategies to teach: develop research strategy, understand archival principles of provenance and original order, understand archival principles as a means for locating evidence, understanding nature and use of archival evidence. Research experience must be structures, suggest secondary sources for background reading. Help understand and evaluate the mass of information in documents and help with the task of generalizing intelligently from details. Educational role: not complexity of teaching, but the numbers of researchers that overwhelms the archivist: offer "information literacy" programs (once called bibliographic instruction). • College and University instructors: Collaboration between teacher and archivists can solve some of the problems that emerge when working with students. Collaborate to identify/develop topics/exercises. Use collections to find document and primary sources for teaching (i.e. reproduction of historical documents for students for slideshows etc). Public programs and publications, structured orientation sessions, have teachers attend with students. Translate well to online tutorials. o Orientation sessions = focused on the subject area of course, add handouts on repository procedures and research, provide examples of research projects, read out loud from historical documents, show photos, illustrate how use of original sources can bring the research process alive. o Exercises use finding aids proper care of materials, procedures for requiring materials and photocopies, taking notes/making citations. o Should be hands-on or interactive, don't just lecture, relate to real life. Approach instructors with topics or research suggestions, offer to teach orientation session in archives. Review course catalogs/schedules. Inquire at neighboring community colleges for users. • K-12 Teachers: Online curricula, teacher outlines, prepackaged and digitized documents for study. Identifying Avocational User Groups • "Fun" users: o Genealogists: archivists can serve them with pamphlets and educational programs, handouts, self-help devices, instructional videos, web sites and citations. Microforms are frequently required materials, put copies of heavily consulted materials on open shelves. Scan and index. Use well-trained paraprofessionals, work with genealogical societies to develop education programs. o Amateur historians: Community celebrations and anniversaries can be a time to encourage people to donate papers. Lecture series, exhibitions, slide show/videos in meetings or classrooms, column in local paper. o Hobbyists: study/collect (focused) historical event. o Lifelong learners. • Personal engagement. • Pluralistic, mobile society = it is important that individuals, families, and groups have a sense of time, place, and identity. • History is not limited to the dominant political, social, and economic elites, it is also about the individual and collective quests of ordinary people for a meaningful place in their families, communities, and larger world. Information Seeking vs. Information Retrieval • Difference is in the focus on needs, actions, characteristics of information seeker. o The information seeker: mental models, evolving process, "berry picking." o Seeking information from people: all human communication begins non-verbally. When we communicate orally, regardless of our tools, information is filtered and authenticated by experience. o Seeking information from documents: "principle of least effort." Turn to personal connections, then libraries. Researchers browse shelves for information, may be put off by closed stacks of archives. Researchers also "chase" footnotes = this is information in context. Also search citations in journal run for related articles for other works by the same author. Looking for authenticated, evaluated information in context. o Seeking information from electronic resources: the principle of least effort takes on new meaning with e-resources. o Seeking information in organizations: looking to human information networks. o Seeking information in archives: focus on good record-keeping. o Archives in the world of information: researchers find archives via informal personal networks (word of mouth). Electronic networks are increasingly important. • Archives and the Economics of Information: the one minute researcher. What is the place of archives in this environment? Archivists should promote the authoritative value of archives as fundamental to social well-being. Chapter 4: Providing Intellectual Access to Archives Arrangement • Provenance and Original Order in Everyday Life: we find the objects of everyday life by their function and form; we embed metadata. Elizabeth Shaw says that "metadata is implicit in the physical environment" ... "place plays a significant role in our information seeking behavior by providing visual, social, and physical clues about the nature of our environment and the information provided within it... [it] imposes a set of relationships on objects." • Provenance and Original Order in Archives: how do we find anything? The structure and meaning of records is found in functional systems. Organized by needs of the user, that order is maintained when records are transferred to archives. Provenance links records to the records that created them, reflects organizational functions, and follows the lines of communication outlines in an organizational chart. • The Power of Provenance: Most important thing = ensure evidence in records = authentic. Chain of continuous custody = authenticity. • Hierarchy of control: control via conceptual hierarchy: document -> file unit -> series -> record group. Record group is independent of the "name on the door/building." Description • Memory fades: the farther removed users are from the activities that created the records, the more they need detailed information about the circumstances under which the records were created and the more they rely on archival description and reference assistance. • Archival description is meta-information (information about information that guides users and helps them understand). • Collective Description and Progressive Refinement of Control: provide information about creation, organization, function. Hierarchy, top-down description (broadest to "appropriate" level). Data elements. Ideal descriptive system = based on national standards for data structure and values = allows for sharing elements between repositories. Researcher can be used to enhance description. • History of Descriptive Systems in the US: in an ideal world, descriptive systems would be designed after assessing the needs of users. Instead, archivists (librarians & curators) inherit finding aids that reflect practices influenced by tradition, mix of styles, lack of descriptive standards, reflecting tools available at that time. Two type s of finding aid systems evolved in US: provenance-based descriptive systems in archives and content-indexing descriptive systems in manuscript repositories. o In provenance-based descriptive systems = derives only from what is known about the file, activities of the creating person/org and the structure/org principles. Inventory used, often = minimal information @ content or subjects of the records. Repositories produced guides with slightly more info, not deep intellectual pieces, not evolve with additional information. The reference archivist was/is critical in making provenance-based systems work, they link subjects with arch materials. Archivists rely heavily on their own memories/knowledge of collection. o In content-indexing descriptive systems = info is gathered by an indexer who examines the records. Early systems of organization = library classification, then to provenance arrangement based on form, correspondent, subject, date. MSS repositories developed descriptive systems based on direct subject indexing of content. Detailed control = collection-level description = unnecessary. This was reasonable until mid-20th century. o Evolution of Intellectual Access to A/V Materials = description was idiosyncratic, photos were removed from collections. Now treat nontextual materials as they treat textual. However, photos likely to be described at item-level. Separation sheet to indicate relocation. o Convergence of Finding Aid Systems = increased focus on descriptive systems and standards, attempts to bridge gaps between different levels of description/access. Most archives use two-stage system to provide access to users: preliminary public guide and more detailed in-house inventories/registers. o Continuing Evolution of Descriptive Systems = computers and online access have made more info accessible to more people. Database/web-based description allows arch to integrate access points across finding aids. Discussion of descriptive standards. o Electronic Access Systems = extend searching capability, allow postcoordinate searching not possible in traditional indexes or catalogs (researchers can search for combinations of words). Interactive hierarchical displays. Allows for scanning/browsing large amounts of info quickly. Remote access. Hyperlinks enhance the power of footnotes by linking directly to the source. Users/other staff not need to rely as much on knowledge of reference archivists, but also means less interaction with knowledgeable staff. • Providing Information About Repositories: directories, repository publications, repository web pages, public programs. • Providing Information About Holdings: repository guide (print and online resources), subject surveys aka "guide to _____" (published by scholars or national research org), National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC), bibliographic databases (OCLC, RLG, in-house OPACs), National Inventory of Documentary Sources, ArchivesUSA, online finding aids via consortia of digital services (EAD). • Providing Information From Holdings: personal, individual knowledge of the archivist about their holdings. Supplying information, fine line between reference services and research. Changing researcher expectations: providing extracted information, rather than direction to relevant records, is likely to become more important for archives. Researchers will expect customized electronic services for specific information. Must become service agencies providing information services their primary constituencies need. Developing policies: be clear about what you will do and for how long. Maintain a list of outside researchers who can be hired by users. • Providing Information About Record Creators: link information about record creators with the information needs of other departments. Valuable historical information about creators. Admin histories and bio notes. Vertical file for ready reference (can be physical or virtual). • Providing Referrals: to other collections, other offices/departments that still have their records, outside repositories. Chapter 5: The Reference Process Understanding the interaction between users, finding aids, and records. Also provide services to users & potential users through public and web-based programming. Value-added process. Reference Interaction in the Repository: question negotiation = query abstraction, resolution, refinement. Intellectual dimensions of reference services • Initial Interview o Query Abstraction = user & archivist transaction is a subject-based query into topics. Elicit specific names etc to match retrieval language of the finding aid system. Learn intended uses of information. Is info for them or are they the intermediary? How much time do they have? o Query Resolution = user & archivist relate topics to records. Analyze problems in terms of available sources and form search strategy. Archivist assesses available resources, identifies records, suggests order for use. Explain the search process. Help researchers to think archivally = functionally & hierarchically. o Search strategy = search path segments • Continuing Interaction o Query Refinement = research refines subject-based queries & topics, adds names of organizations/people/events. Discuss during research. Repeat process. • Exit Interview: if you can, schedule an exit interview during the initial interview. Interpersonal Dynamics: the Human Dimension of the Reference Interview. Libraries vs. archives: libraries = short & voluntary reference encounter, archives = substantive, continuing, obligatory. • Nonverbal signs & symbols: in additional to users' assumptions, archivists make their own. Avoid making assumptions about level of intelligence and skill or value of research based on mannerisms. • The first question: the initial inquiry o Helping researchers articulate their need o Reference interview handout for researchers (pg 125) = explains why archivists do the interview. o Responding to the first question: active listening o Cues for researchers o Interpersonal dynamics of continuing interaction let researcher know that you are available, ask follow-up questions, talk about the exit interview in the initial interview. Access policy should indicate how much assistance staff can be expected to give. o Exit interview = very little has been written. Administrative Dimensions of Reference Interaction Virtual Reference Services: Commercial software products • Customer service software products to view web pages simultaneously • QuestionPoint: collaborative service for Lib of Congress & OCLC • Real-time interaction • Videoconferencing, mail lists, chat rooms Developing personal networks: Page 144. • Public Programs: establish goals and objectives, identify constituencies & their needs, develop programs to meet those needs, evaluate the programs' success in meeting them. • Developing personal networks inside the parent organization: make appointments with records creators in their office to discuss records & info needs, give tours of facilities (people love the authenticity of archival holdings), work with marketing & PR staff who use archival holdings to represent org image and promote org, volunteer info from archival holdings for org projects and initiatives, invite staff to parties announcing opening of collections/exhibits/other public programs, rehearse 2 minute explanation of archives for conversations in hallways & elevators, take advantage of unplanned opportunities (join committees, speak @ a meeting or training session, advocate use of archives in casual conversation). • Developing personal networks outside the parent organization: participate in conferences of scholarly associations, visit with creators/donors/collectors, call & get to know univ instructors, prepare public programs describing the repository's records and how they could assist current work. Chapter 6 Determining Access Policies Defining Access Policies and its Relationship to Reference Services • Access depends on context: broad = process of locating information, narrow = authority, permission, legal sense. • Access is who gets to see what and when. • Access and reference are not the same thing (pg 150) • Equality of access is now the governing principle for use of records in most repositories. • Archival responsibilities regarding access: o Understand laws & regulations relevant to information found in records in the repository, esp. federal & state laws governing privacy, confidentiality, and freedom of information, and regulations relating to security classification, o Advise donors and creators about access issues, o Negotiate clear and responsible agreements with private donors and originating agencies, o Know where sensitive information is likely to be found in the types of records acquired, o Identify information that cannot be released immediately for public use, o Develop appropriate restrictions for sensitive information, o Administer restrictions fairly, o Inform users about restricted materials, o Strive to open as much as possible, o Define policy codifying access decisions, o promote equality of access wherever possible, o Advocate legislation or institutional policy that clarifies archival issues in the creation, preservation, accessibility, and use of records. Access Concepts • Dual responsibility to creators and public • Guiding concepts = privacy, confidentiality, right to know (democracy), equality of access Laws Affecting Access to Information • Privacy: may sue on 4 grounds: intrusion into seclusion, public disclosure of private fact, false light, misappropriation. • Freedom of information: FOIA: educate users and self • Classification: keep information about actions safe = limits right to know, security classification rests on series of executive orders. • Family Education Right and Privacy Act of 1974: FERPA = protects students, release directory information. • Institutional Policy: info in personal papers & records of private organizations Donor Restrictions: terms of access are usually included in deed of gift or transmittal documents. Ethical Norms • Insofar as possible, records open to one user are open to all users • Strive to give equal service to all users, but must consider resources. • Question: what is the archivists' responsibility regarding discovery in their collections by a researcher? Restrictions: Screening users & information Elements of an Access Policy • User communities: identify the communities of users to be served by the repository • Resources and Restrictions: state general the types of records held by the repository, types of information that may need to be restricted, identify all applicable laws and institutional information policies that apply to info in repository, indicate how restrictions will be applied. • Intellectual access & reference services: describe the finding aids (availability, details about level of description), levels of reference services (limitations and priorities), and the relationship between the two. Specify distinctions in service levels (research services). Describe searching services, copy services, services for remote users. • Fees: indicate/describe • Physical access and conditions of use • Use of information: establish policies to respond to requests for permission to publish from holdings. Indicate forms for citations. Determine terms for staff use of holdings. • Loan of materials: specify conditions under which materials will be loaned. Chapter 7: Providing Physical Access to Archives Reference Facilities: reading room/search room: concerns @ security and preservation. • Public space. • Well-designed room is quiet, comfortable, well-lighted (UV filters on lights). • Shades to control sunlight. • Furniture should accommodate use of collections (i.e. big tables). • Outlets for laptops. • Configured for circulation of people and materials (book trucks). • Desk space for Ref staff, location needs to facilitate access to staff & security of materials. • Open access to finding aids. Include general set of reference tools = enhance research experience. • Make sure you have the special equipment needed for viewing/using materials (ie microform machines, a/v equip). Include instructions for use of equipment. Security • The need of each repository is different, must evaluate based on your individual needs. • 3 components interact to provide security for documents • Secure storage • Description of holdings: description systems can compound security problem-- do you know what you have? • Protection of materials while in use: supervision while items are in use. • Understand motives for thieves and vandals. • Integrity of records can be threatened by careless use; items left out of order = destroys provenance/original order if they are not documented. • Pg 182-83 = provides an example of "Repository Security Checklist" • Protect employees from workplace dangers/hazards. • Emergency response: plan for a disaster before it happens. Preservation • Protect against wear/tear, sunlight, photocopying, dirty hands, general use and retrieval. • Educate staff and users @ how to use materials/protect materials = vital. • Gloves for photos, book cradles for oversized volumes or rare books. • Preservation actions during reference: dusting exteriors of boxes and bound volumes, placing fragile items in polyester sleeves, photocopying damaged documents, adding spacer boards to underfilled boxes, replacing damaged folders/adding folders as required, removing and replacing damaging fasteners, noting presence of oversize materials and ensuring their safe access, counting items in folders containing valuable or sensitive materials, withholding records that will be damaged by use. Public Hours, Directions: be clear & consistent, publicize. Policy and Procedure Statements for Users • Location and hours • Access • Accommodations • Directions • Parking • Registration and security • Finding aids • Requesting materials • Use of material • Copyright • Ordering copies Registration and Identification: be clear. Example of form on 194-95. Keep daily log. Protect information about users. Personal belongings in the Reading Room: it's okay to limit belongings! Give them some place to store them. Be clear about restricted items. Managing materials in the reading room • Call/retrieval/paging slips: provide information/details @ use of collection. Carbonless copies. • Retrieving Materials: this procedure varies. Most repositories limit to one box @ a time. • Returning materials: be clear about what users should do if they have to leave materials for a short time (i.e. put them back in box). Check box when user is finished. General Rules for Handling Records: varies based on holdings, but prudent standards are common to all. Don't eat, don't mix records in folders, don't smoke, use pencils. Advertise rules. Taking Information from Records: Users take information from records in many ways: some use pencil & paper to take notes, others use tape recorders or cameras, but more are using laptops, scanners and digital cameras. Be clear about policies, be consistent. Automation of Registration and Retrieval Procedures: registration, barcodes, retrieval requests, collection management system. Electronic Records: advances in technology are changing the nature of reference service for electronic records. How do you make them accessible? E-records are not new, but born digital are different... • Can be copied quickly, and copies are identical to original. • Transmitted off-site without disrupting the original. • Originals don't need to be made available for use. • Customary rules for preserving and using textual records are not needed, but we still have to consider how changes to access mechanisms, as well are rights management and security requirements, will change over the long-term. • How do we make them accessible via the internet? Web interfaces = access to databases that were once in-house only. • We will have mixes of both digital and paper. • Only records that are used will be preserved and available into the future- we can't save it all. Chapter 8: Providing Information from Archives: Copies & Loans Copying Documents • Requests for Copying: for research, for publication, for exhibition, for performance, for legal use, for preservation • Copying Policies: using outside vendors, management of intermediate copies, self-service copies, setting fees for copying, setting limits on copying, copying for remote requests. • Copying Procedures: information for users (handouts), order forms, handling/billing/delivery. • Types of Copies: photocopies, microform, photographic, audio, moving images, digital. Copyright • Ownership of copyright: right to reproduce the work, make derivative works from it, distribute copies of it, perform it publicly, display it publicly. • Terms of copyright: created after/before January 1, 1978 (pg 229-231 = copyright chart), unpublished works created before Jan 1, 1978. • Limitations on Rights of Copyright Holders: Fair Use Copying by Libraries & Archives. • Copies for Private Study: required copyright notice posted. • Request for Permission to Publish. Publishing Documents • Publishing Access to Digital Surrogates of Documents • Loans Policies & Procedures: administrative use, exhibition, research, policies/procedures (requests for loans, loan agreements). Chapter 9: Managing Reference Services and Evaluating the Use of Archives Organizing Reference Services • Curatorial Organization • Rotating Reference Services • Functional Organization • Staff Qualifications Managing Reference Services • Planning • Establishing Policies • Implementing Procedures • Records Management • Time Management • Advocacy and Communication Measuring and Evaluating the Use of Archives • Establishing Quality: Understanding User Needs, quantitative measures of the use of archives • Evaluating Quality: developing and evaluating individual performance, evaluating repository performance Understanding the Value of Use User Studies