Ethnolichenology database

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This is the index of all lichen species in the database. To return to the main page click here.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Unidentified


Alectoria spp.

Alectoria fremontii (syn. Bryoria fremontii)

Alectoria jubata

Alectoria nigricans ("Gray witch's hair")

Alectoria nitidula (syn. Bryoria nitidula)

Alectoria ochroleuca ("Green witch's hair")

Alectoria sarmentosa ("Witch's hair")

Anaptychia spp. ("Fringe lichens")

Anaptychia ciliaris (syn. Physcia ciliaris)

Arctoparmelia centrifuga ("Concentric ring lichen"; syn. Parmelia centrifuga, Xanthoparmelia centrifuga)

Aspicilia calcarea (syn. Urceolaria calcarea??, Lecanora calcarea)

Aspicilia cinerea ("Cinder lichen"; syn. Urceolaria cinerea??, Lecanora cinerea)

Aspicilia esculenta ("Manna Lichen"; syn. Lecanora esculenta)

Aspicilia fruticulosa

Aspicilia jussufii

Aspicilia vagans


Bacidia spp. ("Dot lichens")

Borrera furfuracea

Bryocaulon divergens ("Northern fox hair"; syn. Cornicularia divergens)

Bryoria spp. ("Bear hair", "Witches' Hair")

Bryoria capillaris ("Gray horsehair lichen"; syn. Alectoria capillaris, Alectoria setacea, Alectoria implexa)

Bryoria fremontii ("Black tree lichen"; syn. Alectoria fremontii; partial syn. Alectoria jubata)

Bryoria nitidula ("Tundra horsehair lichen"; syn. Alectoria nitidula)

Buellia subsoriroides


Caloplaca murorum (syn. Caloplaca saxicola)

Caloplaca saxicola (syn. Caloplaca murorum)

Candelariella vitellina ("Common gold speck lichen")

Cenomyce chlorophaea Flörke ex Sommerf (syn. Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng.)

Cenomyce stellaris Opiz (syn. Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo)

Cetraria aculeata ("Spiny heath lichen"; syn. Coelocaulon aculeatum, Cornicularia aculeata)

Cetraria crispa (syn. Cetraria ericetorum subsp. ericetorum, Cetraria islandica subsp. crispa)

Cetraria cucullata (syn. Flavocetraria cucullata)

Cetraria ericetorum ("Iceland lichen"; partial syn. Cetraria crispa)

Cetraria fahlunensis (syn. Melanelia commixta)

Cetraria glauca (syn. Platismatia glauca)

Cetraria islandica ("Iceland Lichen", "Iceland Moss")

Cetraria juniperina (syn. Lichen juniperinus)

Cetraria nivalis (syn. Flavocetraria nivalis)

Cetraria pinastri (syn. Vulpicida pinastri)

Cetrariella delisei ("Snow bed Iceland lichen"; syn. Cetraria delisei)

Chrysothrix chlorina ("Sulfur dust lichen"; syn. Lepraria chlorina)

Cladina spp. ("Reindeer lichen"; partial syn. Cladonia spp.)

Cladina aberrans (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb. (syn. Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo)

Cladina arbuscula ("Reindeer lichen"; syn. Cladonia arbuscula, Cladonia sylvatica)

Cladina mitis ("Green reindeer lichen")

Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl. ("Gray reindeer lichen"; syn. Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg., Lichen rangiferus L. (em. Ach.))

Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo ("Star-tipped reindeer lichen"; syn. Cenomyce stellaris Opiz, Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabenh., Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vezda; syn. with Cladina stellaris var. aberrans (Abbayes) Ahti are: Cladina aberrans (Abbayes) Hale & W. L. Culb., Cladonia aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb., Cladonia alpestris f. aberrans Abbayes)

Cladonia spp. (Pixie cup lichens)

Cladonia aberrans (Abbayes) Stuckenb. (syn. Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo)

Cladonia alpestris (L.) Rabenh. (syn. Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo)

Cladonia arbuscula (syn. Cladina arbuscula)

Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng. ("Mealy pixie-cup"; syn. Cenomyce chlorophaea Flörke ex Sommerf.; Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Schaer.; Cladonia pyxidata var. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke)

Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd. (syn. Lichen cocciferus L.; likely syn. genera Pyxidium, Scyphiphorus, Scyphophorus, Scyphophora)

Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr. ("Trumpet lichen"; syn. Cladonia major, Lichen fimbriatus L.)

Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd. ("Smooth Cladonia"; syn. Lichen gracilis L.)

Cladonia miniata G. Mey. (??syn. Cladonia sanguinea Eschw.)

Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm. ("Pebbled pixie-cup"; syn. Lichen pyxidatus L.; likely synonymous genera: Pyxidium, Scyphiphorus, Scyphophorus, Scyphophora)

Cladonia pyxidata subsp. chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Schaer (syn. Cladonia pyxidata var chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Flörke; Cladonia chlorophaea (Flörke ex Sommerf.) Spreng.)

Cladonia rangiferina (L.) F. H. Wigg. (syn. Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl.)

Cladonia sanguinea Eschw. (??syn. Cladonia miniata G. Mey.)

Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pouzar & Vezda (syn. Cladina stellaris (Opiz) Brodo)

Cladonia sylvatica (syn. Cladina arbuscula)

Cladonia vermicularis (Sw.) Th. Fr (??syn. Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Schaer.)

Coelocaulon aculeatum (syn. Cetraria aculeata)

Cornicularia divergens (syn. Bryocaulon divergens)


Dactylina arctica ("Arctic finger lichen")

Dermatocarpon miniatum ("Common stickleback", "Leather lichen")

Dictyonema spp.

Diploschistes scruposus ("Crater lichen"; syn. Urceolaria scruposa)


Evernia spp.

Evernia mesomorpha ("Boreal oak moss lichen")

Evernia prunastri ("Oak moss lichen")

Evernia furfuracea (syn. Pseudevernia furfuracea)

Everniastrum cirrhata (syn. Parmelia cirrhata)


Flavocetraria cucullata ("Curled snow lichen"; syn. Cetraria cucullata)

Flavocetraria nivalis ("Crinkled snow lichen"; syn. Cetraria nivalis)

Flavoparmelia caperata ("Common green shield lichen"; syn. Parmelia caperata, Pseudoparmelia caperata)

Flavopunctelia soredica ("Speckled greenshield"; syn. Parmelia soredica, Parmelia ulophyllodes, Parmelia manshurica, Punctelia soredica)


Gyrophora cylindrica (syn. Umbilicaria cylindrica)

Gyrophora dillenii (syn. Umbilicaria mammulata)

Gyrophora deusta (syn. Umbilicaria deusta)

Gyrophora esculenta (syn. Umbilicaria esculenta)

Gyrophora muehlenbergii (syn. Umbilicaria muehlenbergii)

Gyrophora proboscidea (syn. Umbilicaria proboscidea)

Gyrophora velea (syn. Umbilicaria velea)


Haemotomma ventosum (syn. Ophioparma lapponica in North America)

Heterodermia diademata ("Cupped fringe lichen"; syn. Anaptychia diademata)

Hypogymnia physodes ("Monk's hood lichen"; syn. Parmelia physodes)


Lasallia spp. ("Toadskin lichen")

Lasallia pustulata (syn. Umbilicaria pustulata)

Lecanora calcarea (syn. Aspicilia calcarea)

Lecanora cinerea (syn. Aspicilia cinerea)

Lecanora parella (syn. Ochrolechia parella)

Lecanora tartarea (syn. Ochrolechia tartarea)

Lepraria chlorina (syn. Chrysothrix chlorina)

Lepraria iolithus ("Dust lichen")

Letharia vulpina ("Wolf lichen"; syn. Evernia vulpina)

Leptogium spp. ("Jelly skin lichens")

Lichen cocciferus L. (syn. Cladonia coccifera (L.) Willd.)

Lichen fimbriatus L. (syn. Cladonia fimbriata (L.) Fr.)

Lichen gracilis L. (syn. Cladonia gracilis (L.) Willd.)

Lichen pyxidatus L. (syn. Cladonia pyxidata (L.) Hoffm.)

Lichen rangiferus L. (em. Ach.) (syn. Cladina rangiferina (L.) Nyl.)

Lichen vermicularis Sw. (syn. Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Schaer.)

Lobaria amplissima (Scop.) Forssell (syn. Sticta amplissima?? Ask Goward, Lobaria laciniata)

Lobaria oregana ("Lettuce lichen", "Lettuce lung"; syn. Sticta oregana)

Lobaria pulmonaria ("Lungwort", "Lung lichen"; syn. Sticta pulmonaria, ??Sticta pulmonacea, ??Lobaria pulmonacea)

Lobaria scrobiculata ("Textured lungwort"; syn. Sticta verrucosa)


Melanelia acetabulum (syn. Lichen acetabulum, "Parmelia acebatulum", Parmelia acetabulum)

Melanelia commixta (syn. Cetraria commixta, Cetraria fahlunensis)

Melanelia olivacea ("Spotted camouflage lichen"; syn. Parmelia olivacea)

Melanelia stygia ("Alpine camouflage lichen"; syn. Parmelia stygia)


Nephroma arcticum ("Arctic kidney lichen", "Green light")

Nephroma parile ("Powdery kidney lichen")


Ochrolechia oregonensis ("Double rim saucer lichen")

Ochrolechia parella (syn. Lecanora parella)

Ochrolechia tartarea ("Cudbear"; syn. Lecanora tartarea, Lichen tartarea)

Ophioparma lapponica (syn. Haemotomma ventosum in North America)


Parmelia spp.

Parmelia abessinica Kremp.

Parmelia acetabulum (Neck.) Duby (syn. Parmelia acebatulum (sic), Melanelia acetabulum)

Parmelia borreri (syn. Parmelia borreria (sic), Punctelia borreri)

Parmelia camtschadalis (Ach.) Eschw. (syn. Parmelia kamptschadalis (sic), Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis??)

Parmelia caperata (syn. Flavoparmelia caperata)

Parmelia centrifuga (syn. Arctoparmelia centrifuga)

Parmelia cirrhata (syn. Everniastrum cirrhatum)

Parmelia conspersa (syn. Xanthoparmelia conspersa)

Parmelia furfuracea (syn. Pseudevernia furfuracea)

Parmelia hyporysalea

Parmelia kamtschadalis (sic) (syn. Parmelia camtschadalis, Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis??)

Parmelia olivacea (syn. Melanelia olivacea)

Parmelia omphalodes ("Smoky crottle")

Parmelia paraguariensis (syn. Parmelia paraguariensi (sic))

Parmelia parietina Ach.

Parmelia perforata (syn. Parmotrema perforatum)

Parmelia perlata (syn. Parmotrema chinense)

Parmelia physodes (syn. Hypogymnia physodes)

Parmelia sancti-angelii Lynge (??syn. Parmotrema sancti-angelii)

Parmelia saxatilis ("Salted shield lichen", "Crottle"; syn. Lichen saxatilis)

Parmelia saxicola

Parmelia stygia (syn. Melanelia stygia)

Parmelia sulcata ("Hammered shield lichen")

Parmelia tinctorum (syn. Parmotrema tinctorum)

Parmotrema chinense ("Powdered ruffle lichen"; syn. Parmelia perlata)

Parmotrema perforatum ("Perforated ruffle lichen"; syn. Parmelia perforata)

Parmotrema sancti-angelii (Lynge) Hale (??syn. Parmelia sancti-angelii)

Parmotrema tinctorum (syn. Parmelia tinctorum)

Peltigera spp.

Peltigera aphthosa ("Common freckle pelt", "Pelt lichen")

Peltigera britannica ("Flaky freckle pelt")

Peltigera canina ("Dog lichen")

Peltigera horizontalis ("Flat fruited pelt")

Peltigera membranacea ("Membranous dog-lichen")

Peltigera neopolydactyla ("Carpet pelt")

Peltigera polydactyla

Peltigera venosa ("Fan lichen")

Pertusaria spp. ("Wart lichens"; syn. Variolaria spp.)

Pertusaria amara ("Bitter wart lichen"; syn. ??Variolaria faginea, Variolaria amara, ??Pertusaria faginea)

Pertusaria communis (syn. Pertusaria pertusa)

Pertusaria corallina (syn. Buellia disciformis, Pertusaria areolata)

Pertusaria discoidea (syn. Variolaria discoidea, ??Pertusaria albescens)

Pertusaria pertusa (syn. Pertusaria communis)

Pertusaria pseudocorallina (syn. Pertusaria microstictica)

Physcia spp. ("Rosette lichens")

Physcia pulverulenta (syn. Physconia distorta)

Physconia distorta ("Frost lichen"; syn. Physcia pulverulenta, Physconia pulverulacea, Physconia pulverulenta)

Platismatia glauca ("Varied rag lichen", "Ragbag"; syn. Cetraria glauca)

Pseudocyphellaria aurata ("Green specklebelly"; syn. Sticta aurata)

Pseudocyphellaria crocata ("Yellow specklebelly"; syn. Sticta crocata)

Pseudevernia furfuracea ("Antler lichen"; syn. Evernia furfuracea, Borrera furfuracea, Parmelia furfuracea, and Lichen furfuracea)

Punctelia borreri (syn. Lichen borreri Sm., Parmelia borreria (sic), Parmelia borreri)


Ramalina spp.

Ramalina bourgeana

Ramalina calicaris

Ramalina cuspidata (syn. Ramalina polymorpha)

Ramalina farinacea ("Dotted Ramalina")

Ramalina fastigiata

Ramalina fraxinea

Ramalina polymorpha (syn. Ramalina cuspidata??, Ramalina siliquosa, Ramalina breviuscula, Ramalina scopulorum var. incrassata)

Ramalina scopulorum

Rhizocarpon geographicum ("Yellow map lichen")

Roccella spp. ("Orchil lichens")

Roccella fuciformis ("Orchil lichen"; syn. Roccella fuciformia (sic), Lichen fuciformis)

Roccella montagnei ("Orchil lichen")

Roccella phycopsis ("Orchil lichen")

Roccella tinctoria ("Orchil lichen"; syn. Lichen roccella)


Scyphophorus cocciferus (syn. Cladonia coccifera??)

Scyphophorus pyxidatus (syn. Cladonia pyxidata??)

Solorina crocea ("Orange chocolate chip lichen")

Stereocaulon himalayense

Stereocaulon paschale ("Easter lichen")

Sticta spp. ("Moon lichens", "Crater lichens"; partial syn. Lobaria spp.)

Sticta amplissima (??syn. Lobaria amplissima)

Sticta aurata (syn. Pseudocyphellaria aurata)

Sticta crocata (syn. Pseudocyphellaria crocata)

Sticta glomerulifera (syn. "Sticta glomulerifera")

Sticta pulmonaria (syn. Lobaria pulmonaria)

Sticta pulmonacea (??syn. Lobaria pulmonaria)


Teloschistes flavicans ("Powdered orange bush lichen")

Teloschistes parietinus (syn. Xanthoria parietina)

Teloschistes vermicularis

Thamnolia vermicularis (Sw.) Schaer. ("Whiteworm lichen"; syn. ??Cladonia vermicularis (Sw.) Th. Fr.; Lichen vermicularis Sw)


Umbilicaria spp. ("Rock tripes")

Umbilicaria cylindrica ("Fringed rock tripe"; syn. Gyrophora cylindrica)

Umbilicaria deusta ("Peppered rock tripe"; syn. Gyrophora deusta, Gyrophora flocculosa)

Umbilicaria esculenta (syn. Gyrophora esculenta)

Umbilicaria mammulata ("Smooth rock tripe"; syn. Gyrophora dillenii)

Umbilicaria muehlenbergii ("Plated rock tripe"; syn. Gyrophora muehlenbergii)

Umbilicaria proboscidea ("Netted rock tripe"; syn. Gyrophora proboscidea)

Umbilicaria pustulata (syn. Lasallia pustulata)

Umbilicaria vellea ("Frosted rock tripe"; syn. Gyrophora velea)

Urceolaria calcarea (??syn. Aspicilia calcarea)

Urceolaria cinerea (??syn. Aspicilia cinerea)

Urceolaria scruposa (syn. Diploschistes scruposus)

Usnea spp.

Usnea barbata

Usnea californica (partial syn. Usnea ceratina)

Usnea ceratina ("Warty beard lichen"; partial syn. Usnea californica)

Usnea dasypoga (syn. Usnea filipendula)

Usnea densirostra (previously misidentified as Usnea hieronymi)

Usnea diffracta

Usnea filipendula ("Fishbone beard lichen"; syn. Usnea dasypoga, has been misidentified in North America as Usnea plicata)

Usnea florida

Usnea hieronymi

Usnea hirta ("Bristly beard lichen"; syn. Usnea variolosa)

Usnea lacunosa

Usnea longissima ("Methuselah's beard lichen")

Usnea plicata

Usnea scabrata (may be syn. to Usnea barbata in North America)


Variolaria spp. (syn. Pertusaria spp.)

Variolaria discoidea (syn. Pertusaria discoidea)

Variolaria faginea (??syn. Pertusaria amara)

Variolaria orcina (??syn. Pertusaria spp.)

Vulpicida canadensis ("Brown-eyed sunshine lichen"; partial syn. Cetraria juniperina)

Vulpicida pinastri ("Powdered sunshine lichen"; syn. Cetraria pinastri, Cetraria caperata)


Xanthoparmelia camtschadalis (Ach.) Hale ("Rock shield lichen"; ??syn. Parmelia camtschadalis)

Xanthoparmelia chlorochroa ("Tumbleweed shield lichen"; syn. Parmelia chlorochroa)

Xanthoparmelia conspersa ("Peppered rock shield"; syn. Parmelia conspersa)

Xanthoria candelaria ("Shrubby sunburst lichen")

Xanthoria parientina ("Maritime sunburst lichen", "Wall lichen"; syn. Teloschistes parientinus, Physcia parientina, Lichen parietinus)


Unidentified lichens, black and yellow

Unidentified lichen, earth flower

Unidentified lichens, general lichens in Europe

Unidentified lichens, growing on white pine

Unidentified lichen, New Zealand

Unidentified lichens, orange and yellow crustose

Unidentified lichen, pyrenocarpous

Unidentified lichens, southern Mexico

Unidentified lichen, "white moss"

Unidentified lichen, yellow saxicolous

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