Ethnolichenology references

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Abo-Khatwa, A. N., A. A. Al-Robia, and D. A. Jawhari. 1996. Isolation and identification of usnic acid and atranorin from some Saudi Arabian lichens. Arab Gulf Journal of Scientific Research 15 : 15 - 28.

Airaksinen, M. M., P. Peura, L. Ala-Fossi-Salokangas, S. Antere, J. Lukkarinen, M. Saikkonen, and F. StenbŠck. 1986. Toxicity of plant material used as emergency food during famines in Finland. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 18: 273-296.

Anderson, J. R. 1925. Trees and Shrubs: Food, medicinal, and poisonous plants of British Columbia. Charles F. Banfield: Victoria, BC.

Antœnez de Mayolo, K. K. 1989. Peruvian Natural Dye Plants. Economic Botany 43(2): 181-191. Page 188.

Arendt, R. 1872. Lichen spirits. The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science 26: 118. This is a summary of the original paper published in 1872 in Chemisches Centralblatt 34.

Arnason, T., R. J. Hebda, and T. Johns. 1981. Use of plants for food and medicine by native peoples of eastern Canada. Canadian Journal of Botany 59(11): 2189-2325.

Baker, Marc A. 1981 The Ethnobotany of the Yurok, Tolowa and Karok Indians of Northwest California. Humboldt State University, M.A. Thesis (34) . Cited in: Moerman (1998).

Barberie, M. A. 1946. Edible wild plants of New Brunswick as a source of riboflavin. M. Sc. thesis, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB. Cited in: Arnason et al (1981).

Beaglehole, E., and P. Beaglehole. 1935. A note on Hopi sorcery. Hopi of the Second Mesa, Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, no. 44: 5-10.

Beeson, W. M., H. R. Bird, E. W. Crampton, G. K. Davis, R. M. Forbes, L. E. Harris, L. E. Hanson, J. K. Loosli, J. E. Oldfield, A. D. Tilman, J. R. Aitken, J. M. Bell, L. W. McElroy, W. J. Pidgen, and W. D. Morrison. 1972. Atlas of nutritional data on United States and Canadian feeds. National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

Blair, E. H. 1911. Indian Tribes of the Upper Mississippi and the Great Lakes Region. 2 vols. Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company. Cited in: Yarnell (1964).

Blankinship, J. W. 1905. Native economic plants of Montana. Mont. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 56: 1-38. Cited in: Johnson (1970).

Boas, F. 1921. Ethnology of the Kwakiult. Thirty-Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1913–1914, 35: . Cited in: Turner and Bell (1973).

Bouchard, R., and D. I. D. Kennedy. 1977. Lillooet stories. Sound Heritage 4(1): 1-78. Cited in: Turner and Davis (1993).

Bourne, G., and R. Allen. 1935. Vitamin C in lower organisms. Nature 136: 185-186.

Brodo, I. M., and D. L. Hawksworth. 1977. Alectoria and allied genera in North America. Opera Botanica 42: 1-164.

Brodo, I. M, S. D. Sharnoff, and S. Sharnoff. 2001. Lichens of North America. Ch. 10 Lichens and People. Yale University Press, New Haven.

Brooker, S. G., and R. C. Cooper. 1962. New Zealand Medicinal Plants. Unity Press Ltd.: Auckland, New Zealand.

Brough, S. G. 1984. Dye characteristics of British Columbia forest lichens. Syesis 17: 81-94.

Brough, S. G. 1988. Navajo lichen dyes. Lichenologist 20(3): 279-290.

Burkholder, P. R., A. W. Evans, I. McVeigh, and H. K. Thornton. 1944. Antibiotic activity of lichens. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the U. S. A. 30(9): 250-255.

Bustinza, F., and A. Caballero L—pez. 1948. Contribución al estudio de los antibióticos procedentes de los líquenes, Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid V:511-533. Madrid. Cited in: González-Tejero et al (1995).

But, P. P. H. et al. (eds.). 1997. International Collation of Traditional and Folk Medicine. Singapore: World Scientific. 6Ð7. Cited online at <>.

CABI Bioscience Databases. 2002. Online at: <>.

Cabrera, C. 1996. Materia Medica—Usnea spp. European Journal of Herbal Medicine 2(2): 11Ð13. Cited online at <>.

Casselman, K. D. 1999. Lichen dyes & dyeing: A critical bibliography of European and North American literature in a culturally marginalized field. Master's thesis, St. MaryÕs University.

Chamberlain, L. S. 1901. Plants used by the Indians of eastern North America. The American Naturalist 35: 1-10.

Chandra, S., and A. Singh. 1971. A lichen crude drug (chharila) from India. Journal of Research in Indian Medicine 6: 209-215.

Chatfield, C., and G. Adams. 1940. Proximate composition of American food plants. U. S. Dep. Agric. Circ. 549. Cited in: Arnason et al (1981).

Chesnut, V. K. 1902. Plants used by the Indians of Mendocino County, California. Pages 295-408 in: Contributions from the U. S. National Herbarium. Vol. VII. Systematic and Geographic Botany, and Aboriginal Uses of Plants. Government Printing Office: Washington.

Compton, Brian Douglas 1993 Upper North Wakashan and Southern Tsimshian Ethnobotany: The Knowledge and Usage of Plants.... Ph.D. Dissertation, University of British Columbia (141). Cited in: Moerman (1998).

Crum, H. 1993. A lichenologist's view of manna. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium 19: 293-306.

Curtin, L. S. M. 1949. By the Prophet of the Earth: Ethnobotany of the Pima. Reprinted in 1984, University of Arizona Press: Tucson, Arizona.

Davis, E. W., and J. A. Yost. 1983. Novel hallucinogens from eastern Ecuador. Botanical Museum Leaflets, Harvard University 29(3): 291-295.

Densmore, F. 1939. Nootka and Quileute Music. Bureau of American Ethnology, Bull. No. 124, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. Cited in: Turner et al. 1983.

DePreist, P. 2002. Synonymy List for Smithsonian Cladoniaceae PEET Project. Smithsonian Institute. Online at <>. Preliminary list based on 'Names in Current Use' project (T. Ahti, Regnum Vegetabile 128: 58-106. 1993).

Dobrescu, D. et al. 1993. Contributions to the complex study of some lichens—Usnea genus. Pharmacological studies on Usnea barbata and Usnea hirta species. Rom J Physiol 30(1-2): 101-107. Cited online at <>.

Ellis, N. R., L. J. Palmer, and G. L. Barnum. 1933. The vitamin content of lichens. Journal of Nutrition 6: 443-454.

Esslinger, T. L. 1997. A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota State University. Online at <>. First posted December 1, 1997; most recent update July 17, 2002. Fargo, North Dakota.

Freeman, M. M. R. 1967. An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo. Arctic 20(3): 154-175.

Gmelin, J. G. 1752. Reise durch Sibirien. Göttingen. (In German, translates as "Trip through Siberia"). Cited in: Smith (1921).

Gifford, E. W. 1967. Ethnographic notes on the Southwestern Pomo. 48 pp. University of California Publications, Anthropological Records, vol. 25. University of California Press: Berkeley, California.

Gilmore, M. R. 1912. Uses of plants by the Indians of the Missouri River Region. pp. 43–154 in: Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution. Government Printing Office: Washington.

González-Tejero, M. R., M. J. Martínez-Lirola, M. Casares-Porcel, and J. Molero-Mesa. 1995. Three lichens used in popular medicine in Eastern Andalucia (Spain). Economic Botany, 49(1): 96-98.

Grinell, G. B. 1905. Some Cheyenne plant medicines. American Anthropologist (New Series), 7: 37-43.

Handa, S. S., A. S. Chawla, and A. K. Sharma. 1992. Plants with anti-inflammatory activity. Fitoterapia Vol. LXIII, No. 1. Cited in Abo-Khatwa et al. (1996).

Hart, J. 1976. Montana - Native plants and early peoples. The Montana Historical Society and the Montana Bicentennial Administration, Helena, Montana. Cited in: Turner and Davis (1993).

Hawkes, E. W. 1913. The 'Inviting-In' feast of the Alaskan Eskimo. Memoirs, Canada Department of Mines, Geographical Survey, Memoir 45. Ottawa. Cited in: Oswalt (1957).

Hellbom, P. J. 1884 (could be 1886). Page 72 in Norrlands Lafvar. K. Svensk. Vet.-Akad. Handl. XX. n. 8, 131 pp. Cited on: Page 47 in Waino, E. A. 1887. Monographia Cladoniarum universalis. Helsingfors. Part I. (Part II published in 1894, part III in 1897). Cited in Smith (1921).

Hellson, J. C., and M. Gadd. 1974. Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians. National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service, 19:1-138.

Henneguy, Félix. 1883. Les Lichens Utiles. Paris, 114 pp. (20 figs.). Cited in Smith (1921).

Herrera, F. L. 1941. Sinopsis de la flora del Cuzco. Vol. 1. Parte sistemática. Lima. Cited in: Antúnez de Mayolo (1989).

Hesse, O. 1916. Lichens and their characteristic constituents. XIV. Use of lichens as provisions and fodder. Journal Fur Praktische Chemie 93: 254-270. Cited in: Perez-Llano (1944).

Hobbs, C. 1986. Usnea: The Herbal Antibiotic. Capitola, CA: Botanica Press. Cited online at <>.

Holloway, P. S., and G. Alexander. 1990. Ethnobotany of the Fort Yukon Region, Alaska. Economic Botany, 44: 214-225.

Ingolfsdottir, K. et al. 1997. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to protolichesterinic acid from the lichen Cetraria islandica. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41(1): 215-217. Cited online at <>.

Institute of Medicine of the National Academies: Panel on Macronutrients, Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber, Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes, and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. 2002. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Protein and Amino Acids. 936 pp. National Academy Press: Washington, D. C. Available online at: <>.

Johnston, A. 1970. Blackfoot Indian utilization of the northwestern Great Plains. Economic Botany, 24: 301-323.

Johnson, A. 1982. Plants and the Blackfoot. Provincial Museum of Alberta, Natural History Occasional Paper No. 4. Pp. 106.

Kauppi, M. 1979. The exploitation of Cladonia stellaris in Finland. Lichenologist 11(1): 85-89.

Kawagoe, S. 1925. The market fungi of Japan. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 10: 201-206.

Kempe, C., H. Gruning, N. Stasche, and K. Hormann. 1997. [Icelandic moss lozenges in the prevention or treatment of oral mucosa irritation and dried out throat mucosa] [In German]. Laryngorhinootologie 76(3): 186-188. Cited online at <>.

Kok, A. 1966. A short history of orchil dyes. Lichenologist 3: 248-272.

Kuhnlein, H. V., and N. J. Turner. 1991. Traditional plant foods of Canadian Indigenous Peoples. Anthropology in Food and Nutrition, Vol. 8. Solomon Katz (editor). Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Philadelphia. Cited in: Turner and Davis (1993).

Kupchan, S. M., and H. L. Kopperman. 1975. L-Usnic acid: Tumor inhibitor isolated from lichens. Experientia 31: 625-626. Cited in Abo-Khatwa et al. (1996).

Lagasca, M. 1803. Noticia sobre el descubrimiento del liquen islándico en el Puerto de Pajares. Gaceta de Madrid. 29 de Julio de 1803. Cited in: González-Tejero et al (1995).

Lal, B. M., and K. Ranganatha Rao. 1956. The food value of some Indian lichens. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 15(C): 71-73.

Lal, B., and D. K. Upreti. 1995. Ethnobotanical notes on three Indian lichens. Lichenologist 27(1): 77-79.

Lange, O. L. 1957. Die Flechte Parmelia paraguariensis als Handelsware in Südlichen Sahara. Nat. Volk 87: 266-273.

Lauterwein, M., M. Oethinger, K. Belsner, T. Peters, and R. Marre. 1995. In vitro activities of the lichen secondary metabolites vulpinic acid, (+)-usnic acid, and (-)-usnic acid against aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 39(11): 2541-2543.

Lawrey, J. D. 1986. Biological role of lichen substances. The Bryologist 89: 111-122.

Léorier. 1825. Rapport fait á la Société Linnéenne sur le procédé de M. Roy de Tonnerre pour retirer de l'alcool des Lichens. Soc. Linn. Paris, IV. pp. 219–225. Cited in: Smith (1921).

Lewis, M., and W. Clark. 1804-1806. Original journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition, 1804-1806. Edited, with introduction, notes, and index, by Reuben Gold Thwaites. 7 vols. and atlas, New York, 1904-1905. Cited in: Spinden (1908).

Lindley, John. 1838. Flora Medica. Reprint 1981. Ajay Books Service: New Delhi, India.

Lira, J. A. 1940. Farmacopea tradicional indígena y prácticas rituales. Imprenta El Condor, Lima. Cited in: Antœnez de Mayolo (1989).

Llano, G. A. 1944a. Lichens: their biological and economic significance. The Botanical Review 10(1): 1-65.

Llano, G. A. 1944b. Economic uses of lichens. Economic Botany 2: 15-45.

Llano, G. A. 1956. Utilization of lichens in the arctic and subarctic. Economic Botany 10: 367-392.

Lynge, B. 1921. Studies on the lichen flora of Norway. Norske Vidensk. Akad. i Oslo Math. Nat. Kl. Skr. 1921: 1-252. Cited in: Perez-Llano, 1944.

MacCracken, J. G, L. E. Alexander, and D. W. Uresk. 1983. An important lichen of southeastern Montana rangelands. Journal of Range Management 36(1): 35-37.

Marshall, A. G. 1977. Nez Perce social groups: an ecological interpretation. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation, Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman. Cited in: Turner and Davis (1993).

McClintock, W. 1910. The Old North Trail: or Life, Legends, and Religion of the Blackfeet Indians. Macmillan & Co.: London. 539 pp.

McCune, B. 2000. Usnea in the Pacific Northwest. Available online at <>.

Mead, G. R. 1972. The ethnobotany of the California Indians: a compendium of the plants, their users, and their uses. Occasional Publications in Anthropology, Ethnology Series, No. 30. Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado: Greeley, Colorado, USA.

Miao, V., M. Coeffet-LeGal, D. Brown, S. Sinnemann, G. Donaldson, and J. Davies. 2001. Genetic approaches to harvesting lichen products. Trends in Biotechnology 19: 349-355.

Moerman, D. 1998. Ethnobotany of Native America. Available online at

Mullins, B. 1973. Recetas de tintes naturales. Art Center, Lima. Cited in: Antœnez de Mayolo (1989).

Mutané, J. 1991. Aportació al coneixement de l'Ethnobotánic de Cerdanya. Doctoral Thesis, faculty of Parmacy, University of Barcelona, 1220 pp. Cited in: González-Tejero et al (1995).

Nelson, A. 1951. Medical Botany. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd.: Edinburgh, Great Britain.

Ogmundsdottir, H. M., G. M. Zoega, S. R. Gissurarson, and K. Ingolfsdottir. 1998. Anti-proliferative effects of lichen-derived inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase on malignant cell-lines and mitogen-stimulated lymphocytes. J Pharm Pharmacol 50(1): 107Ð115. Cited online at <>.

Okuyama, E., K. Umeyama, M. Yamazaki, Y. Kinoshita, Y. Yamamoto. 1995. Usnic acid and diffractaic acid as analgesic and antipyretic components of Usnea diffracta. Planta Med 61(2): 113-115. Cited online at <>.

Osgood, C. 1959. Ingalik mental culture. Yale University Publications in Anthropology, Department of Anthropology, Yale University, No. 56.

Osorio, H. S. 1982. Contribution to the lichen flora of Uruguay XVII. The scientific name of the 'Yerba de la Piedra'. Phytologia 52: 217-220.

Oswalt, W. H. 1957. A Western Eskimo ethnobotany. Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska 6(1): 16-36.

Parker, A. C. 1910. Iroquois uses of maize and other plant foods. Bull. N. Y. State Mus. 144. Cited in: Arnason et al (1981).

Pengsuparp, T. et al. 1995. Mechanistic evaluation of new plant-derived compounds that inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. J Nat Prod 58(7): 1024-1031. Cited online at <>.

Perez-Llano, G. A. 1944. Lichens: their biological and economic significance. The Botanical Review 10(1): 1-65.

Periera, E. C. et al. 1994. Analysis of Usnea fasciata crude extracts with antineoplastic activity. Tokai J Exp Clin Med 19(1Ð2): 47Ð52. Cited online at <>.

Piorkowski. 1916. The use of algae and lichens as auxiliary and substitute materials for pharmaceutical purposes. Ber. Pharm. Ges. 26: 192-198. Cited in: Perez-Llano (1944).

Poulsson, E. 1906. The behaviour of several lichen carbohydrates in the human body and their use in diabetes mellitus. Upsala Läkanför. Förhandl, n. ser., 11, Supp. 14: 25. Cited in: Perez-Llano (1944).

Pojar, J., and A. MacKinnon. 1994. Plants of Coastal British Columbia: Including Washington, Oregon, and Alaska. Lone Pine Publishing: Vancouver, B. C.

Powers, S. 1877. Tribes of California. Contributions to North American Ethnology, Department of the Interior, U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey of the Rocky Mountain Region, 3: 1-635.

Prance, G. T. 1972. Ethnobotanical notes from Amazonian Brazil. Economic Botany 26: 221-237.

Radisson, P. E. 1885. The Voyages of Peter Esprit Radisson. Boston. Cited in: Chamberlain (1901). Cited in: Chamberlain (1901).

Ravenhill, A. 1938. The Native Tribes of British Columbia. King's Printer, Victoria, B. C. Cited in: Turner and Bell (1971).

Ray, V. 1932. The Sanpoil and Nespelem. University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 5, Seattle.

Raymond, M. 1945. Notes ethbotaniques sur les Tête-de-Boule de Manouan. Contributions de l'Institut Botanique de l'Universite de Montreal, 55: 113-134.

Reagan, A. B. 1928. Plants used by the Bois Fort Chippewa. Wisconsin Archaeologist (New Series), 7(4): 230-248. Cited in: Arnason et al (1981) and in Yarnall (1964).

Richard, O. J. 1877. Catalogue des Lichens des Deux-Sêvres. Niort. Cited in Smith (1921).

Richardson, D.H.S.. 1988. Medicinal and other economic aspects of lichens. Pages 93–108 In M. Galun (ed.), ed. CRC Handbook of Lichenology. Volume III.

Rowe, J. G., M. T. Saenz, M. D. Garcia, and A. M. Gil. 1991. Additional contribution to the study of the antimicrobial activity and identification of lichenic substances in some lichens from Southern Spain. Ann. Pharm. Fr. 49(5): 278-285. Cited in Abo-Khatwa et al. (1996).

Scotter, G. W. 1964. Effects of forest fires on the winter range of barren-ground caribou in northern Saskatchewan. Wildl. Mgmt Bull., Ottawa, ser. 1, 18: 1-111. Cited in: Kauppi (1979).

Senft, E. 1911. The so-called 'Lichen Quercinus virides'. Pharm. Post. 43: 1017-1019. (German journal). Cited in: Perez-Llano (1944).

Sharnoff, S. D. 1997. Lichens and people. Online: <>

Shibamoto, T., and C. I. Wei. 1984. Mutagenicity of lichen constituents. Environmental Mutagenesis 6: 757-762. Cited in Abo-Khatwa et al. (1996).

Skidmore, I. F., and M. W. Whitehouse. 1965. Bio-chemical properties of anti-inflammatory drugs. Biochemical Pharmacology 14: 547-555. Cited in Abo-Khatwa et al. (1996).

Smith, A. L. 1921. Lichens. Chapter X. Economical and technical. Cambridge University Press. pp. 395 – 420. Second edition published 1975 by The Richmond Publishing Co.: Richmond, Surrey, England.

Smith, G. W. 1973. Arctic Pharmacognosia. Arctic 26(4): 324-333.

Smith, H. H. 1923. Ethnobotany of the Menomini Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4(1): 1-174.

Smith, H. H. 1932. Ethnobotany of the Ojibwa Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 4(3): 327-525. Cited in: Arnason et al (1981) and in Yarnall (1964).

Smith, H. H. 1933. Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee, 7(1):1-230. Cited in: Yarnall (1964).

Smith, H. I. 1928. Materia medica of the Bella Coola and neighboring tribes of British Columbia. Nat. Mus. Can. Bul., No. 56, King's Printers, Ottawa, Ont., p. 47-68. Cited in: Turner (1973).

Spindin, H. J. 1908. The Nez Perce Indians. Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, 2(3): 165-274.

Stahlschmidt, D. 1870. Preparation of spirits from lichens. The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science 22: 23. This is a summary of the original paper published in Bayerisches Industrie und Gewerbe Blatt, April, 1870.

Stenberg, Sten. 1868a. Om användandet af Lafvar rason material för framställning af Drufsocker och Alkohol. Oefv. K. Vetensk. Akad. Förh. pp. 17–28. Cited in Smith (1921).

Stenberg, Sten. 1868b. Om Tillverkning af Lafbränvin. Stockholm, 52 pp. Cited in Smith (1921).

Stowe, G. C. 1940. Plants used by the Chippewa. Wisc. Archaeol. (New Series), 21: 8-13. Cited in: Arnason et al (1981).

Stubbs, R. D. 1966. An investigation of the edible and medicinal plants used by the Flathead Indians. Unpublished M. A. thesis, University of Montana, Missoula. Cited in: Turner and Davis (1993).

Subramanian, S. S., and S. Ramakrishnan. 1964. Amino acids of Peltigera canina. Current Science 33: 522.

Swartz, M. D. 1911. Nutritional investigations on the carbohydrates of lichens, algae, and related substances. Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Science 16: 249-382.

Takai, M., Y. Uehara, and J. A. Beisler. 1979. Usnic acid derivatives as potential antineoplastic agents. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 22: 1380-1384. Cited in Abo-Khatwa et al. (1996).

Teit, J. A, and F. Boas. 1928. The Salishan tribes of the western plateaus. Forty-Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1927–1928, 45: 23-396.

Teit, J. A., and E. V. Steedman. 1928. Ethnobotany of the Thompson Indians of British Columbia. Forty-Fifth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1927–1928, 45: 441-522.

Tilford, G. L. 1997. Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West. Missoula, MT: Mountain Press Publishing Company. 148-149. Cited online at <>.

Turner, N. C., and M. A. M. Bell. 1971. The ethnobotany of the Coast Salish Indians of Vancouver Island. Economic Botany 25: 63-104.

Turner, N. C., and M. A. M. Bell. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Southern Kwakiutl Indians of British Columbia. Economic Botany 27: 257-310

Turner, N. J. 1973. The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia. Syesis 6: 193-220.

Turner, N. J. 1974. Plant taxonomic systems and ethnobotany of three contemporary Indian groups of the Pacific Northwest (Haida, Bella Coola, and Lillooet). Syesis 7: 1-104.

Turner, N. J. 1977. Economic importance of black tree lichen (Bryoria fremontii) to the Indians of western North America. Economic Botany 31: 461-470.

Turner, N. J. 1978. Food plants of the British Columbia Indians. Part 2. Interior peoples. British Columbia Provincial Museum Handbook No. 36, Victoria, British Columbia.

Turner, N. J. 1998. Plant Technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum Handbook. UBC Press: Vancouver.

Turner, N. J., R. Bouchard, and D. I. D. Kennedy. 1980. Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Occasional Papers of the British Provincial Museum No. 21, Province of British Columbia.

Turner, N. J., and A. Davis. 1993. "When everything was scarce": the role of plants as famine foods in northwestern North America. Journal of Ethnobiology 13(2): 171-201.

Turner, N. J. and B. S. Efrat. 1982. Ethnobotany of the Hesquiat Indians of Vancouver Island. Cultural Recovery Paper No. 2, British Columbia Provincial Museum, Victoria.

Turner, N. J., J. Thomas, B. F. Carlson, and R. T. Ogilvie. 1983. Ethnobotany of the Nitinaht Indians of Vancouver Island. Occasional Papers of the British Columbia Provincial Museum No. 24: 1-165.

Turner, N. J., L. C. Thompson, M. T. Thompson, and A. Z. York. 1990. Thompson Ethnobotany: Knowledge and Usage of Plants by the Thompson Indians of British Columbia. Royal British Columbia Museum: Victoria.

Uphof, J.C.T.. 1959. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Hafner, New York. Page 266.

Vartia, K. O. 1973. Antibiotics in lichens. In: The Lichens (eds. V. Ahmadjian and M. E. Hale), Academic Press, New York, pp. 547–561. Cited in Abo-Khatwa et al. (1996).

Vickery, A. R. 1975. The use of lichens in well-dressing. Lichenologist 7: 178-179.

Villar, L., J. M. Palacin, C. Calvo, D. Gomez, and G. Monserrat. 1991. Plantas medicinales del Pirineo aragonés y demás tierras oscenses. Diputación provincial de Huesca, Huesca, 322 pp. Cited in González-Tejero et al (1995).

Vogel, V. J. 1970. American Indian Medicine. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, Oklahoma.

Wilson, M.. R. 1970. Notes on ethnobotany in Inuktuit. Western Canadian Journal of Anthropology, 8(2-4): 180-196.

Wheelwright, E. G. 1935. The Physick Garden: Medicinal Plants and Their History. Reprinted in 1974 as Medicinal Plants and Their History. Dover Publications, Inc.: New York.

Yarnell, R. A. 1964. Aboriginal relationships between culture and plant life in the upper great lakes region. Anthropological Papers, Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, No. 23: 1-218.

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