To return to the main page click here.

Fernald and Kinsey 1958

Fernald, M. L. and A. C. Kinsey (1958). Edible Wild Plants of Eastern North America. New York, Harper & Row, Publishers.

Fernández et al. 1996

Fernández, E., W. Quilhot, I. Gonsález, M. E. Hidalgo, X. Molina and I. Meneses (1996). "Lichen metabolites as UV-B filters." Cosmetics and Toiletries 111: 69-74.

Foden et al. 1975

Foden, F. R., J. McCormick and D. M. O'Mant (1975). "Vulpinic acids as potential antiinflammatory agents. 1. Vulpinic acids with substituents in the aromatic rings." Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 18(2): 199-203.

Forlines et al. 1992

Forlines, D. R., T. Tavenner, J. C. S. Malan and J. J. Karchesy (1992). "Plants of the Olympic Coastal Forests: Ancient knowledge of materials and medicines and future heritage." Basic Life Sciences 59: 767-782.

Reviews ethnobotany in the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and draws on information from one informant, David Forlines. Looks at dyes and medicines, and reviews information on polyphenol content of some of these plants.

Lobaria pulmonaria is called "Frog-skin lichen" and is used to make a red orange dye.

Franchére 1820

Franchére, G. (1820). Relation d'un voyage à la côte du nord-ouest de l'Amérique septentrionale dans les années 1810, 11, 12, 13, et 14 [Translation: Narrative of a Voyage to the Northwest Coast of America in the Years 1811, 1812, 1813, and 1814]. Original publication: Montréal, De l'impr. de C.B. Pasteur. Translated by Jedediah Vincent Huntington and republished 1854, New York, Redfield.

Freeman 1967

Freeman, M. M. R. (1967). "An ecological study of mobility and settlement patterns among the Belcher Island Eskimo." Arctic 20(3): 154-175.

Cladonia rangiferina was used by the Belcher Island Eskimo as fuel. It burned with an intense, short lived flame.

Fukuoka et al. 1968

Fukuoka, F., M. Nakanishi, S. Shibata, Y. Nishikawa, T. Takeda and M. Tanaka (1968). "Polysaccharides in lichens and fungi. II. Anti-tumor activities on sarcoma-180 of the polysaccharide preparations from Gyrophora esculenta Miyoshi, Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. var orientalis Asahina, and some other lichens." Gann 59: 421-432.

Gabriel and White 1954

Gabriel, L. and H. E. White (1954). "Food and medicines of the Okanakanes. (Compiled by Hester White)." Report of the Okanagan Historical Society of Vernon, British Columbia 18: 24-29.

[about Okanagan]

A cooking-pit is dug and lined with hot rocks, then a layer of skook-welp (rosebush branches) to prevent roots from burning. The (peeled if speet-lum), washed rots are put in the pit and another layer of skook-welp, then de-kwah-lep (timber grass) and finally lok-la (earth are added. A hole is made in the top and see-colkh (water) is poured in to make s’hool (steam_ from the hot rocks to cook these roots. Some roots were cooked overnight. When cooked the roots were put in the sun to dry out on to-ook-tan (tule) mats.

Sku-lep (Indian bread) is cooked the same way. This is made of the long hair-like moss which hangs from fir trees on mook-way-ut (high) mountains. The moss was cleaned and covered with spe-a-kaluk (dried berries) to sweeten and flavour it. It was placed between tule mats before covering it. When done the sku-lep was cut in pieces and dried.

After babies were weaned from the breast they were given se-yah (berry) juices and the long sku-leep moss from the trees was melted into a syrup, something like Karo syrup. This was good for them.

Garcia et al. 1990

Garcia, G. H., R. Campos and R. A. d. Torres (1990). "Antiherpetic activity of some Argentine medicinal plants." Fitoterapia 61(6): 542-546.

30 plant species important in fold medicine, including Usnea campestris and Usnea densirostra, were tested for antiviral activity.

Reported use for Usnea campestris: Medicinal.

Reported use for Usnea densirostra: Antiseptic. Antiflogistic (external use).

Both were traditionally called "barba de piedra".

No antiviral activity found for either species.

Maximum non-cytotoxic concentration (mg vegetal drug/mL):

Usnea campestris: 3.12

Usnea densirostra: 1.56

Garth 1953

Garth, T. R. (1953). "Atsugewi Ethnobotany." Anthropological Records [University of California Publications] 14(2): 129-212.

Atsugewi are one of the Pit River Tribes. In northeastern California, composed of the Atsuge in the west and Apwaruge in the east.

Pg 140 Black moss, applied as a poultice, was used for reducing swellings. The moss was taken from pine trees, dried, and pounded up. It was then boiled, or sometimes was used dry.

Pg 145 Old style shirts were painted with red ochre or they might have porcupine quills in a row on the sleeves and shirt front, but the only decoration of this sort that I saw on modern buckskin clothing was a red line painted along the outside seam of a trousers' leg. 10

10 Quills were boiled with juniper moss to color them green. The black tips of the quillls were so placed as to form the design. These green quills were also used for the designs on women's basket hats. Sometimes a man decorated a buckskin belt with quills. (IP.)

IP: Ida Peconom, aged about 68; a shaman; was quite intelligent and proved to be my best informant. From Apwaruge.

Pg 139 Lists food uses for yellow jacket (mumumisi) nests, Jerusalem crickets (honigi), grasshoppers (cmacigur), salmon flies (unutpi or halipwa), ant (sinasita) eggs, and angelworms (musi).

Gifford 1967

Gifford, E. W. (1967). "Ethnographic notes on the southwestern Pomo." Anthropological Records [University of California Publications] 25: 1-48.

Usnea californica was called kôchih (qoci). Used as diapers for babies. In interviews with Herman James in 1950, he said that Usnea was used as toilet chips.

Gilmore 1919

Gilmore, M. R. (1919). Uses of plants by the indians of the Missouri river region. Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institute 1911-1912. Washington, Government Printing Office: 43-154.

González-Tejero et al. 1995

González-Tejero, M. R., M. J. Martínez-Lirola, M. Casares-Porcel and J. Molero-Mesa (1995). "Three lichens used in popular medicine in eastern Andalucia (Spain)." Economic Botany 49(1): 96-98.

Mention made of uses of Lobaria pulmonaria, Parmelia sulcata, Evernia sp., Usnea sp., Cladina sp., Peltigera canina, Cetraria islandica, and Usnea barbata.

Specifically talks about Ramalina bougeana, Xanthoria parientina, and Pseudevernia furfuracea.

Ramalina bourgeana is used in Spanish folk medicine in the municipal areas of Viso and Nijar. It is called Flor de piedra (Stoneflower). A decoction of the thallus is used as a diuretic for treating renal lithiasis. A cup is taken daily until the patient is better.

Xanthoria parientina is used in Spanish folk medicine. It is called rompepiedra (stonebreaker) or flor de piedra (stoneflower). In Campohermoso a decoction of the thallus with wine is used to treat menstrual complaints. In Barranquete, Cueva de los Medinas, Joya, Pozo de los Frailes, and Puebloblanco a decoction in water was used to treat kidney disorders. In Fernan Pérez and Joya a decoction in water was used as an antiodontalgic. In Fuente del Escribano it is used as an analgesic for several pains. And in San Isidro Jiménez it is an ingredient in a cough syrup, along with the fruits of Ceratonia siliqua and Fiscus carica, the flowers and leaves of Origanum vulgare, the pericarp of the fruit of Prunus amygdalus, the leaves of Olea europaea, and lots of sugar or honey.

Until a few decades ago there was a company in Granada dedicated to the collection of Pseudoevernia furfurcea (for dye or perfume?). This activity still occurs in the neighboring provinces of Sierra de Cazorla and Jaén.

Pseudoevernia furfurcea is used in folk medicine in Spain. It is called musgo (moss). In Alfacar and Víznar the thallus is washed and boiled for a considerable time, then the decoction is drunk for respiratory ailments.

Grinnell 1905

Grinnell, G. B. (1905). "Some Cheyenne plant medicines." American Anthropologist 7: 37-43.

The Cheyenne called Letharia vulpina He¯hyo¯wo¯’i˘sts (the ¯ and ˘ symbols go over preceding vowel). Means yellow dye or yellow root. Plant is boiled in water, and articles steeped in the liquid to dye them a yellowish green

Gunther 1945

Gunther, E. (1945). "Ethnobotany of western Washington." University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 10(1): 1-62.

The Quinault call a lichen that grows on trees ts’o’o´tc. It is used to wipe salmon when they are cleaned, because washing them toughens its skin.

Hanley and McKendrick 1983

Hanley, T. A. and J. D. McKendrick (1983). "Seasonal changes in chemical compositionand nutritive value of native forages in a spruce-hemlock forest, southeastern Alaska." U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station Research Paper PNW-312.

Harmon 1800-1816a

Harmon, D. W. (1800-1816a). A Journal of Voyages and Travels in the Interior of North America Between the 47th and 58th Degrees of North Latitude, Extending from Montreal Nearly to the Pacific, a Distance of About 5,000 Miles, Including an Account of the Principal Occurrences During a Residence of Nineteen Years in Different Parts of the Country. Toronto, Courier Press, Limited (1911).

Harmon 1800-1816b

Harmon, D. W. (1800-1816b). Sixteen Years in the Indian Country. Toronto, The MacMillan Company of Canada, Limited (1957).

Hart 1974

Hart, J. (1974). Plant taxonomy of the Salish and Kootenai Indians of Western Montana. Missoula, Montana, University of Montana. M. Sc. thesis.

Hart 1976

Hart, J. (1976). Montana - Native plants and early peoples. Helena, Montana, The Montana Historical Society and The Montana Bicentennial Administration.

Hausen et al. 1993

Hausen, B. M., L. Emde and V. Marks (1993). "An investigation of the allergenic constituents of Cladonia stellaris (Opiz) Pous & Vezda ('silver moss', 'reindeer moss' or 'reindeer lichen')." Contact Dermatitis 28: 70-76.

Hawksworth 2003

Hawksworth, D. L. (2003). "Hallucinogenic and toxic lichens." International Lichenological Newsletter 36(2): 33-35.

Parmelia saxatilis and Ramalina siliquosa used in the Shetland Islands as tobacco.

Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Parmelia conspersa) used by the Pima, Papago, Mohave, and Kiowa in Arizona as magic hallucinogen and as medicine.

Parmotrema andinum (Parmelia paraguariensis) used in Mauritania as tobacco.

Usnea tablets causing poisoning.

Cetraria islandica being used as toothpaste.

Hawksworth et al. 1984

Hawksworth, D. L., R. M. Lawton, P. G. Martin and K. Stanley-Price (1984). "Nutritive value of Ramalina duriaei grazed by gazelles in Oman." The Lichenologist 16: 93-94.

Hellson and Gadd 1974

Hellson, J. C. and M. Gadd (1974). "Ethnobotany of the Blackfoot Indians." National Museum of Man Mercury Series, Canadian Ethnology Service Paper No. 19: 1-138.

The Blackfoot used an infusion of the lichen and bone marrow for stomache disorders like ulcers. And the lichen was blackened in a fire and rubbed on a rash, exema, and wart sores.

A yellow dye was produced from pieces of this lichen which was combined under pressure with porcupine quills.

Hendryx and Davis 1991

Hendryx, M. and B. J. Davis (1991). Plants and the people: The ethnobotany of the Karuk tribe. Yreka, California, Siskiyou County Museum.

Hess 1976

Hess, T. (1976). Dictionary of Puget Salish, University of Washington Press.

Hesse 1916

Hesse, O. (1916). "Lichens and their characteristic constituents. XIV. Use of lichens as provisions and fodder (Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Flechten und ihrer charakteristischen Bestandteile; Die Verwendung der Flechten als Nahrungs- und Futtermittel)." Journal Fur Praktische Chemie 93: 254-270.

Needs to be translated

Cetraria islandica has 3.35 times more carbohydrate than potatoes, and Cladonia rangiferina has 2.5 times. (Hesse 1916, cited in Perez-Llano 1944)

Hidalgo et al. 1994

Hidalgo, M. E., E. Fernández, W. Quilhot and E. Lissi (1994). "Antioxidant activity of depsides and depsidones." Phytochemistry 37(6): 1585-1587.

Hobbs 1986

Hobbs, C. (1986). Usnea: The herbal antibiotic and other medicinal lichens. Capitola, CA, Botanica Press.

Holloway and Alexander 1990

Holloway, P. S. and G. Alexander (1990). "Ethnobotany of the Fort Yukon redion, Alaska." Economic Botany 44: 214-225.

Occasionally the Gwich’in of the Fort Yukon Region, Alaska occassionally collect Usnea spp. from spruce trees, dry it, and use it as tinder. Called Grandma's Hair.

Hu et al. 1980

Hu, S.-y., Y. C. Kong and P. P. H. But (1980). An Enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. Hong Kong, The Chinese University Press.

Huneck 1999

Huneck, S. (1999). "The significance of lichens and their metabolites." Naturwissenschaften 86(12): 559-570.


Hunn 1997

Hunn, E. S. (1997). Nch'i-Wána: "The Big River": Mid-Columbia Indians and Their Land. Seattle, University of Washington Press.

Hunn 2005

Hunn, G. (2005). Unpublished 1976-1980 ethnobotany field notes. Pers. comm. to S. Crawford. May 18, 2005.

Hunte et al. 1975

Hunte, P., M. Safi, A. Macey and G. B. Kerr (1975). Volume 4: Folk methods of fertility regulation; and the traditional birth attendant (the dai). Buffalo - Kabul, US Agency for International Development - Government of Afghanistan.

Huovinen 1988

Huovinen, K. (1988). "The content of protocetraric acid in different decoctions of Cetraria islandica." Planta Medica 55: 98.

Ad blocker interference detected!

Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.