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First Aid

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1. Basic signs of life

IMPORTANT: Basic rule of first aid is not to expose you or anybody into risk of injury, so before helping anyone, make sure, that emergency conditions are not present (e.g. risk of car explosion after car accident, risk of infection from hepatitis or HIV positive person, risk of burns or choking near fire area, risk of electric shock after touching person under electricity etc.). Always, before starting first aid, do all necessary actions to make help work safe (e.g. give warning triangle 45 metres before car accident, turn ignition device off - if possible - in crashed car, use skin protection materials with possible infected persons, move disabled person far from fire area, turn electric power off before touching person under electricity etc.).

1.1 Control of breathing

3 minutes without breathing for man means damage of brain cells and after 5 minutes is probability of life saving small (exceptions are drowned in cool water, that slows vital functions - completely saved were men after 30 minutes without breath).
a) control moves of chest or belly up and down
b) move ear close to mouth of disabled person - control audible breathing or stream of breath out on face
c) give mirror close to mouth - if becomes dewed, it is water steam from breath out
If nothing confirms breathing, control pulse and start resuscitation according to part 2.1.
1.2 Control of pulse (heartbeat) - blood circulation

Pulse is repeated short pressure wave coming via arteries after every contraction of heart ventricles. Speed and power of pulse can be different according to state, for shock is usual fast weak pulse, that is hard to find by touch. So control pulse on neck carotids (big arteries on both sides of back part of gorge). Insert 2 fingers along side of gorge to reach hole between gorge and muscle on its side. If you do not feel pulse immediately, move fingers closer or farer from gorge. If pulse is still not found, use indirect cardiac massage.

TABLE OF FIRST AID PROGRESSION

If answer to question is YES, go to next step. (If possible, ask anyone to call rescue service during steps 1 - 5.)

1. CONTROL OF CONDITIONS

Are you in safe conditions (no risk of injury) ?
If NO: Protect yourself as priority, then remove all possible emergency sources.

2. CONTROL OF STRONG BLEEDING

Is disabled person without strong bleeding ?
If NO: Stop or reduce strong bleeding (see part 3).

3. CONTROL OF BREATH

Is disabled person breathing ?
If NO: Start rescue breathing - only 2 breaths out to disabled person for now.

4. CONTROL OF PULSE

Is pulse (heartbeat) of disabled person present ?
If NO: Start CPR (Cardio-Pulmonary Resuscitation, see part 2).

5. CALLING RESCUE SERVICE

Did anyone call rescue service during steps 1 - 4 ?
If NO: Call rescue service.

6. RECOVERY POSITION

Are present injuries of spine, neck etc., that prevent from moving ?
If NO: Put disabled person to recovery position.
Control breath and pulse every minute. If possible, search for all available information relating to injury.

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