Fandom

Scratchpad

Ingelerá - EEB

215,986pages on
this wiki
Add New Page
Discuss this page61 Share

Ad blocker interference detected!


Wikia is a free-to-use site that makes money from advertising. We have a modified experience for viewers using ad blockers

Wikia is not accessible if you’ve made further modifications. Remove the custom ad blocker rule(s) and the page will load as expected.

Garabideak - Ingelerá - EEB




ENGLISH IN EUROPE: FOR BETTER, FOR WORSE?

INGELERÁ EUROPAN: ONERAKO ALA TXARRERAKO?

Gunilla Anderman and Margaret Rogers


Introduction

Hitzaurrea

When in 1977 the NASA spacecraft Voyager One blasted off on its historic unmanned mission to Jupiter and beyond, the capsule was equipped with greetings from the planet Earth, brief messages in 55 languages in preparation for the wide-ranging choice of languages that might be spoken in outer space. Preceding the individual language messages, however, was a lengthier statement from Kurt Waldheim speaking on behalf of the then 147 member states of the United Nations. Prophetically the statement made by the Secretary-General of the UN, himself an Austrian, was delivered in English. While, at the time, the use of English to ensure universal understanding of his message might not have been a foregone conclusion, at the present moment in history the choice of English as the language to represent the planet seems indisputable.

1977an NASAko Voyager One espazio ontzia aireratu zenean eskifatu gabeko bere misio historikoan Jupiterrera eta haratago, kapsulá ekipaturik zegoen diosalekin Lur planetatik; mezu laburrak 55 hizkuntzatan' prestatuak ziren hizkuntza aukera zabalerako zein mintza leite kanpo espazioan. Hizkuntza mezu individualen buru(an), halere, bazegoen adierazpen luzeago bat non Kurt Waldheim mintzo zen Nazio Batuen orduko 147 estatu kideen izenean. Profetikoki, NBetako Idazkari Orokorrak egin adierazpena, bera Austriarra izaki, ingeleraz hitz egina zen. Nahiz, garai hartan, bazitekeen ingeleraren erabilerá ez izatea nahitaezko bermea' segurtatzeko haren mezuaren ulertze universala, historiaren une honetan ingelerá hautatzeak planetá ordezkatzeko hizkuntzá legez' eztabaidaezina dirudi.

For English to assume the role of global language is, however, not an altogether uncontroversial issue. While the availability of a lingua franca helps individual nation states to gain an increased international profile, the coexistence of a national and an international language is not always unproblematic; a number of major arguments have been raised related to retaining and promoting English in its present global role, and more particularly its role as European lingua franca. Six of these arguments are first presented in outline, then addressed in this introductory chapter.

Baina ingelerak hizkuntza globalaren rola bere gain hartzea ez da, halere, erabat kontroversia gabeko kontua. Nahiz lingua franca baten eskuartasuna lagungarria den nazio estatu individualek eskura dezatentzat areagoko profil internazional bat, hizkuntza nazional baten eta internazional baten koexistentzia ez da beti problemarik gabea; muntako hainbat eztabaida sortu dira ingelerá mantendu eta sustatzeari buruz bere presenteko rol globalean, eta partikularzki bere rolean Europaren lingua franca bezala. Eztabaida horietarik sei gaingiroki aurkezten dira aurrena, eta ondoren sakonago heltzen zaie atariko kapitulu honetan.

Linguistic imperialism

Inperialismo linguistikoa

The first argument concerns the hotly debated issue of linguistic hegemony, also known as 'linguistic imperialism' (see for example Phillipson, 1992 and Phillipson and Skutnabb-Kangas, 1999). Concern has been voiced that the needs of developing countries are better met through linguistic expertise used to help promote their own national languages than through the English-language programmes offered by Western, post-colonial powers. In a European context, as the use of English for cross-national communication makes inroads into an increasing number of specialist domains and activities, warning voices point to the risk of erosion of the European Union (EU) commitment to cultural and linguistic diversity of its member states (Phillipson, 2003).

Lehen eztabaidá dagokio hizkuntza hegemoniaren gai sutsuki debatituari, baita ere ezaguna "inperialismo linguistiko" bezala (ikus adibidez Phillipson, 1992, eta Phillipson eta Skutnabb-Kangas, 1999). Kezká azaldu izan da ezen garapen bidean diren herrialdeen premiak hobeto nahikotzen direla baliatuz eskarmentu linguistikoa laguntzekotz sustatzen beren hizkuntza nazional proprioak ezen ez Mendebaldeko botere postkolonialek eskainitako Ingeles hizkutzako programen bidez. Europar kontextuan, ingeleraren erabilerak nazioarteko komunikaziorako' bide dagien neurrian gero eta alor eta aktivitate espezializatu gehiagotan, avisu ahotsek seinalatzen dute higatze arriskua Europar Batasunaren (EB) engaiamenduaren' bere estatu kideen diversitate kultural eta linguistikoaren alde (Phillipson, 2003).

A related issue resulting from the expanding use of English in many different spheres of activity – not only within the European Union – is its linguistic influence on many of the languages of the world. Given the tendency for languages with small numbers of speakers to be nudged out by languages spoken by many, it is estimated that in a hundred years' time about 3000 languages may have become extinct. According to some estimates, there are about 6500 languages in the world, about half of which are likely to cease to exist within that time period (Crystal, 2003, personal communication)! This means that on average, every two weeks, somewhere in the world, a language becomes extinct. Since 96% of the world's languages are spoken by only 4% of its people, it is hardly surprising that many of them may feel under threat.

Auzi bat erlazionatua zein resultatzen da ingeleraren erabilera hazkorretik' aktivitate esfera ezberdin askotan –ez Europar Batasunean bakarrik– da haren eragin linguistikoa munduko hizkuntzetarik askotan. Kontuan hartuz hiztun kopuru txikiekiko hizkuntzen tendentziá' zokoraturik izatera jende asko mintzatutako hizkuntzez, estimatzen da ezen ehun urteko denboran 3000 bat hizkuntza galdurik egon leitela. Estimazio batzuen arauera, 6500 hizkuntza inguru daude munduan, zeinetarik erdiak edo existitzeari utziko dioke denbora tarte horretan (Crystal, 2003, komunikazio personala). Honek esan nahi du ezen batez beste, bi astean behin, munduko zerbait lekutan, hizkuntza bat galtzen dela. Munduko hizkuntzen %96 hitz egiten denez gero populazioaren %4 soil batez, ez da batere harrigarria haietarik asko galbidean diren sentipena.

Global English: Language change and language use

Ingelera Globala: hizkuntza aldaketá eta hizkuntza erabilerá


For speakers with English as their first language, the development of English as a means of international communication constitutes another, closely linked issue of concern. Signs of global English developing as a homogenised 'reduced standardised form of language for supra-cultural communication' (Barber, 1992, discussed in Snell-Hornby, 2000: 36) have made some mother tongue speakers fear that, in the process of becoming common property, their native tongue is turning into a 'hybrid' language, sometimes referred to as Eurospeak within the European Union and more broadly as 'McLanguage', reflecting the globalised nature of the modern commercial world (Snell-Hornby, 1999). Concern has also been expressed about the uniqueness and survival of some of the European languages spoken by small numbers of speakers. According to some, English is making visible inroads into their grammar and vocabulary and is therefore perceived as an accelerating force hastening their journey towards extinction to state the extreme case. Hence, linguistic developments in the context of global English constitute the second, topical issue to be addressed here in this volume.

Hiztunentzat ingelerarekin lehen hizkuntza bezala, ingeleraren developamenduak komunikazio internazionaleko bitarte bat bezala' konstituitzen du beste kezkabide bat estuki lotua. Zantzuek ingelera globalaren' developatzen ari nola homogenizatutako "hizkuntza molde bat standarizatu eta sinplifikatua komunikazio supra-kulturalerako" (Barber, 1992, ihardukia in Snell-Hornby, 2000: 36) beldurrarazi diete ingelerá ama-hizkuntza duten zenbait hiztuni ezen, jabego komuna bilakatzeko prozesuan, haien mintzaira nativoa bihurtzen ari dela hizkuntza "hibrida" bat, zeinari batzuetan referitzen zaio nola "Eurohizkera" Europar Batasunaren barruan eta zabalkiago nola "McHizkuntza", islatuz mundu komerzial modernoaren natura globalizatua (Snell-Hornby, 1999). Kezká adierazi izan ere da bakoiztasun eta biziraupenaren inguruan' zenbait europar hizkuntzen zein mintzo dira hiztun kopuru txikiez. Batzuen arauera, ingelerá oldartzen ari da haien gramatika eta vokabularioei, eta honenbestez perzebitzen da indar akzeleragarri bat bezala' bizkortzen ari (dena) haien ibilaldia extinkziora. Hortaz, developamendu linguistioek ingelera globalaren kontextuan' konstituitzen dute bigarren auzi gaurkotasunekoa zein aztertuko baita volumen honetan.

English and translation

Ingelerá eta translazioa

Closely linked to the linguistic problems developing in the wake of global English is the third issue: the need for non-mother tongue speakers to communicate and often translate into a language which is not their own (what Emma Wagner calls 'two-way translation', see this volume). This is already the case among first-generation immigrants in countriessuch as Australia (see Campbell, 1998); in Europe, the same situation pertains in countries such as Finland, where languages of limited diffusion are spoken (see Mackenzie, 1998: 15-19). The enlargement of the EU with its anticipated array of additional languages is likely to intensify even further discussions about the continuing usefulness of the concept of the 'native speaker'. Projections show that the balance between first-language and second-language speakers of English is changing. According to Graddol (1999), the number of second-language speakers will overtake that of first-language speakers within the next 50 years. Others maintain that this has already happened (Davies, 2003: 160; Jenkins, 2003: 2).

Estuki lotua problema linguistikoei' sortuak ingelera globalaren kariaz' dugu hirugarren auzia: ingelerá ama-hizkuntza ez dutenen premiá' komunikatzeko eta maiz translatatzeko hizkuntza batera zein ez da berena (Emma Wagner-ek deritzon "bi bideko translazioa", ikus volumen hau). Hau da dagoeneko kasua lehen belaunaldiko imigranten artean' Australia bezalako herrietan (ikus Cambell, 1998); Europan, situazio bera dugu Finlandia bezalako herrietan, non hitz egiten dira zabalkunde limitatuko hizkuntzak (ikus Mackenzie, 1998: 15-19). EBaren zabalkuntzak, aurreikusten diren bere hamaika hizkuntza adizionalekin, areagotuko dituzke eztabaidak gehiago ere' "hiztun nativo" konzeptuak kontinuatzen ote duen izaten baliagarria. Iragarpenek darakuste ezen oreká lehen hizkuntza eta bigarren hizkuntza ingelerá duten hiztunen artean' aldatzen ari dela. Graddol-en arauera (1999), bigarren hizkuntza dutenen kopuruak gaindituko du lehen hizkuntza dutenena datozen 50 urteetan. Bestek agertzen dute ezen hori gertatu dela honezkero (Davies, 2003: 160; Jenkins, 2003: 2).

Any discussion about the language of a nation also needs to consider its literary traditions and its link with social identity; the influence of English on the languages of Europe also has important implications for translation. At the moment, the present linguistic stronghold of English is matched by the central position held by the Anglo-American literary tradition in Europe, sufficiently firmly established for translated literary works from other languages to be assigned more peripheral positions (see Even Zohar, 1978 and 1990). Hence, for European literature to travel successfully in translation into English, adjustments are often required in order to ensure that European literary imports fit the literary traditions prevailing in the receiving anglophone target culture, not infrequently at the cost of reducing the element of 'foreignness' in the original (see Venuti, 1995).

Zernahi eztabaidak nazio baten hizkuntzari buruz' konsideratu behar ditu ere haren tradizio literarioak eta haren loturá identitate sozialarekin; Ingeleraren influentziak Europako hizkuntzetan' inplikazio inportantak ere ditu translaziorako. Une honetan, ingeleraren presenteko gotorleku linguistikoak lagun du posizio zentrala zein atxikitzen du Anglo-Amerikar tradizio literarioak Europan, aski irmoki establitua beste hizkuntzetatik translatatu lan literarioetarako' asigna dietzotentzat posizio periferikoagoak (ikus Even Zohar, 1978 eta 1990). Hortaz, Europar literaturá arrakastaz bidaia dadintzat ingelerako translazioan, egokitzapenak beharrezkoak dira segurtatzeko Europar inportazio literarioak bat datozela tradizio literario nagusiekin' helburuko kultura anglofono hartzailean, ez bakanetan originalaren "kanpotartasun" elementua murriztearen kostuz (ikus Venuti, 1995).

Language learning and teaching: Some implications of global English

Hizkuntza ikaskuntzá eta irakaskuntzá: ingelera globalaren inplikazio batzuk

The rapid spread of English has also been quoted as a possible factor underlining the present decline in interest among European students in the study of modern languages, a side effect of the use of an international language for purposes of cross-national communication. Nevertheless, there is evidence in the UK, for example, that graduates with a knowledge of modern-languages other than English are highly employable by industry. One account estimates that modern-language graduates have lower unemployment rates than those in Business/Administration, Engineering/Technology and Computing' but claims that not enough UK businesses are aware of the consequences of using only English. The development of English into the language in which many European citizens now tend to communicate with each other therefore raises the question of the way forward for modern-language teaching, not only in the UK but also elsewhere in Europe. While the approach which has most recently informed modern-language pedagogy places primary emphasis on listening comprehension and speaking the foreign language, with the emergence of a European lingua franca, a shift to the early development of reading and translation skills may more accurately reflect the needs of an enlarged Europe. Concentrating on the learning of a closely defined set of skills might help to ensure a continued supply of linguists with a knowledge of the less commonly known languages of Europe. A further step towards protecting such languages might be the introduction of a language policy following the precedents of Australia and South Africa (Phillipson, 2003).

Ingeleraren zabalkuntza bizkorra aipatu izan ere da nola faktoreetarik bat zeinek agerian jar dezakete interesaren beherakadá Europar estudianten artean' hizkuntza modernoen ikaskuntzan, albo efektu bat erabileráren' hizkuntza internazional baten' nazioarteko komunikazio helburuekin. Nolanahi ere, gauza jakina da Erresuma Batuan, esaterako, ezen graduatuak ingelerá ez beste hizkuntza modernoen jakintzárekin' aise enplegatzen ahal direla industrian. Txosten baten arauera hizkuntza modernoko graduatuek dute langabezia hein beheagoa ezi ikasiek Baltzu/Administrazioan, Ingeniaritza/Teknologian eta Konputazioan; baina on ere dauka ezen Erresuma Batuko konpainia asko ez direla ohartzen ingelerá soilik usatzearen ondorioez. Ingeleraren bilakaerák hizkuntza batean zeinean egun Europako herritar askok elkarri komunikatu ohi diote' sortzen du beraz questioa hizkuntza modernoko irakaskuntzáren jarraibideaz, ez Erresuma Batuan soilik baina baita beste nonahi ere Europan. Sistemák zeinak oraindik orain taxutu ukan du hizkuntza modernoen pedagogiá' ezartzen du enfasi nagusia kanpoko hizkuntzáren entzumen eta mintzamenean, Europar lingua francá-ren sorrerarekin, berriz, aldaketa batek irakurmenaren eta translazio antzeen developamendura' isla litzake zehazkiago Europa emendatu baten beharrizanak. Konzentratzeak ikasketan antze-sail arras definitu baten' lagun lezake segurtatzera hizkuntzalari horni bat etengabea' jakintzárekin Europako hizkuntza gutxienik ezagunen. Areagoko urrats bat babestekotz hizkuntza horiek' izan liteke hizkuntza politika baten sarkuntzá jarraikirik Australiako eta Hego Afrikako aurrekariei (Phillipson, 2003).

The nature of the beast: What is International English?

Piztiaren naturá: zer da Ingelera Internazionala?

For such a widespread and widely discussed phenomenon, it is surprisingly difficult to identify a commonly accepted definition of standard international English. According to McArthur, the term 'international English' stems from the 1980s and is also known as international standard English. He defines it as: 'the standard form of English conceived as an international language; international English in its standard form' (1992: 984). Similarly, in the case of English as the lingua franca of Europe, there appears to be little available data on the characteristics of this variety of English for purposes of cross-national communication (for details of an ongoing research project, see James, 2000). Hence the fifth and penultimate topic in the discussion of the present position of English includes some observations on the direction of this new variety of English now emerging.

Horren fenomeno hedatu eta zabalki eztabaidatua den arren, harrigarriki zaila da identifikatzea definizio komunzki akzeptatu bat ingelera standard internazionalaren. McArthur-en arauera, "ingelera internazional" terminoak jatorria du 1980etan eta ezagutzen ere da ingelera standard internazionala bezala. Definitzen du nola "ingeleráren forma standarda konzebitua hizkuntza internazional bezala; ingelera internazionala bere forma standardean" (1992: 984). Halaber, ingeleráren kasuan' Europako lingua franca bezala, datu gutxi bide daude eskura' ezaugarrien gainean ingelera varietate honen' nazioarteko komunikazio helburuekin (aribideko ikerketa projektu baten informaziorako, ikus James, 2000). Hortaz bosgarren eta azken gaiak eztabaidan' ingeleráren presenteko posizioaren' inkluditzen du hainbat observazio norabidearen gainean' orain azaleratzen ari den ingelera varietate berri honen.

Pragmalinguistics

Pragmalinguistika

As cross-national communication among European nationals increases, so does the need for greater understanding of social and cultural divides. In the act of communication, knowledge of a shared lingua franca may go a long way in the pursuit of mutually beneficial social intercourse; there are, however, additional factors that come into play, affecting the way speakers make use of a language other than their own and the way first-language interlocutors interact in such situations. Of considerable importance is an understanding of the prevailing social and cultural traditions which speakers, unwittingly, bring with them from their own language to a communicative situation. As a result, a successful cross-national exchange often requires pragmatic as well as linguistic competence, the sixth topic aired in this chapter, including a discussion of some of the factors concerned with the pragmatic competence required to use language appropriately in different contexts.

Nazioarteko komunikazioa Europar herritarren artean' areagotzen den neurrian, hala dagi ere beharrak ulertze handiago baten' adiezin sozialen eta kulturalen. Komunikazio egintzan, jakintzá lingua franca partekatu baten' izan daite balio handikoa esespenean harreman sozial elkar-onuragarriaren; badira, halere, faktore adizionalak zein joko egiten dute, afektatuz moduari hiztunek erabiltzen baitute berena ez beste hizkuntza bat, eta moduari lehen-hizkuntzako solaskideek interaktuatzen baitute horrelako egoeretan. Inportantzia konsiderablea du ulertzeak tradizio sozial eta kultural gailenak zein hiztunek, oharkabean, berekin ekartzen dituzte beren hizkuntzatik komunikaziozko egoera batera. Ondorioz, nazioarteko hartu-eman arrakastatsu batek maiz behar du konpetentzia pragmatikoa hala nola linguistikoa, kapitulu honetan mahai-gaineratu seigarren gaia, inkludituz eztabaida bat faktoreetarik hainbaten gainean' ikuskizun baitute konpetentzia pragmatikoarekin' requeritua hizkuntzá eraz usatzeko kontextu ezberdinetan.

In the remainder of Chapter 1 we consider in greater detail these different issues in relation to the position of English as a global language and, in particular, its role as the lingua franca of Europe.

Also on Fandom

Random wikia