Years Before Christ: The Rejected Annals of All Nations Synchronized with the Book of Jubilees and the Archaeological Record, by Ras Feqade 2012 AD
(For previous events, see A New History of Egypt (2008))
25th Century BC
In the year 2494 BC, or in the 1569th year of creation, as the book of Kufale tells, the whole Earth was divided into three parts for Shem, Ham and Japheth, and into 16 subregions for their children. However, all three races were then still camped in the areas from Ararat to Shinar (Mesopotamia). In 2467 BC, Nimrod son of Kush, known to archaeology as Enmerkar, founded the city of Eridu (Babil) in Shinar, and he began compelling the construction of the ziggurat tower as head foreman, assisted by Joktan son of Eber for Shem’s offspring, and Samothes son of Rodis (or Rodanim, son of Yawan) for Japheth’s. About this same year, Magog son of Japheth migrated away from Shinar, to the far north of his allotted portion where he founded what is now the city of Turku, Finland. The following year, Peleg son of Eber married Lomna, and in 2461 BC they had their son Reu. Joktan smuggled out 12 men, including his sons Almodad, Abimael, Sheba and Ophir, who would not build the tower, which annoyed Nimrod and Samothes. Meanwhile, Noah had been exploring the Mediterranean coasts of Europe by ship, and in 2447 BC planted a colony in what at now Genoa in Italy. By the next year, Nimrod had established three more settlements in Shinar: Uruk, Akkad and Haran. Uruk became his capital, as he claimed the title of ruler over all humanity. Haran was mostly settled by the family of Aram, son of Shem, while his brother Ashur had settlements at Ashur, Nineveh and Kish. The Sumerian king list affirms that Kish was founded by a certain ‘Gishur’.
In 2437 BC, Madai son of Japheth returned to the Ararat region from crossing the Black Sea, and declared that he would forsake his still empty inheritance in Europe in order to stay near the brothers of his wife, who was a daughter of Shem. He and his family settled in the valley of the Araxes, part of Ashur’s allotment. This resulted in a reapportionment of much of Europe; Samothes was granted the portions of Madai’s territory west of the Rhine river, while those parts east of the Rhine were put under the administration of Tuiscon - who may have been the same as Ashkenaz son of Gomer (as James Anderson asserted) if not his son. In addition, compensating Shem’s offspring for Madai’s new homeland, those areas of Europe south of the Danube river (apart from Italy), which had previously been part of the lands bequeathed to Tubal and Magog, were now reassigned to the families of Joktan and Meshech.
In 2424 BC, winds overturned the tower after 43 years of construction. In this same year, Sueno and Gethar, sons of Magog, first planted colonies in what is now Sweden. Many Hamites had been using dialects similar to the old Cainite language, Ancient Egyptian, as it was taught to them by their mother, Nahalath, who had been on the Ark. Shemites had tended to use something closer to old Sethite, or Ge’ez. Nimrod likely had Sumerian constructed as an artificial common language, but this only increased confusion in vocabulary. The tribe of Elam, who founded Susa in ca. 2421 BC, began devising their own glyphs and speech, and those in Hamazi, between Elam and Asshur, were speaking a number of dialects. Those of Akkad in central Mesopotamia, Asshur (Shubur) east of the northern Tigris, and Canaan (Martu) west of the northern Euphrates continued to use ‘Semitic’ dialects, as did Aram in northern Mesopotamia, and Arphaxad (Chaldea or Kesedim) west of the southern Euphrates.
In 2417 BC, as the Hamites passed toward their allotment beyond the Nile river, Canaan refused to go farther and squatted with his family intending to be permanently in ‘Martu’ - the area of Syria west of the Euphrates and the Jordan valley, despite it being Arphaxad’s allotment by agreement. Petra was occupied by them from around this time, while the Arphaxadites expanded southward into Arabia. In this same year, Nimrod had a wall constructed separating Martu from his realms in Shinar and Akkad, where they were already encroaching, as recorded in a cuneiform tablet known as ‘Lugalbanda and the Anzud Bird’.
In the confusion of vocabulary resulting from the proliferation of languages and dialects following the downfall of the tower at Eridu, all the tribes or peoples sought to define their own terms, and in several cases, scripts. Riphath son of Gomer travelled to Shinar in 2415 BC and after studying and comparing several of them, constructed yet another language, and the scripts adopted by many of the Japethites, then still largely concentrated in the Ararat region. This was the ancestor of all the so-called Indo-European languages. The following year, Nimrod forcefully asserted his authority over the neighboring region of Hamazi, but could not do so over Skythes, ruler of the Sakas of Aratta. Also in that year, Gomer son of Japheth arrived at Noah’s settlements in Italy and began to rule that colony, now known as Gomera, though technically within the allotment of Tubal. Tubal himself sailed to Italy in 2412 BC, and founded a settlement at Ravenna before continuing on to Spain (Tubalia) where he founded Tarragona, named for his son Tarraho, and many more cities during his long reign there. He left in Italy another son Subres, who additionally founded Milan. In that same year, Samothes settled colonies in his region west of the Rhine, known as Samothea, and around this time too the tribes of Javan began to settle in the Aegean islands.
In 2409 BC, the Hamites having reached the Nile, Misraim established himself in Egypt, with the throne name Wahkare or Wahkyanus, and began seeking to emulate the old kingdom monarchy from before the flood that had left behind abundant hieroglyphic records in Ancient Egyptian, along with the pyramids, Sphinx, etc, which texts were republished through the energies of his wife, Tethys. In 2406 BC, Saba settled in Yemen, Cush in Ethiopia with Kam as its first king, Put in Tritonia (now Tunisia), and Havilah son of Cush in Getulia (Algeria), while Japheth continued across the Atlantic to found Atelan. In this same year, Noah passed away.
24th Century BC
In 2399 BC, Nimrod surrounded the capital of Aratta with a large force attempting to force it to submit to him, but there were as yet no battles on Earth. In that same year, Tuiscon crossed the Don (Tina) river eastward with a large body of colonists, including the families of Joktan (or Ister) and Mesha, and he began apportioning the land into subkingdoms. First Sarmata received Sarmatia, between the Don and Vistula rivers. Beyond the Vistula, encountering Gethar’s tribe, Tuiscon made him tributary as well, and established Danus on the south side of the Baltic. Then striking south, he reached the Tisa, where he left Tibiscus in charge. South of the Danube, allotments were given for Meshech in Moesia, Ophir in Epirus, Jadera in Illyria, Dalmata (Almodad) in Dalmatia, Cainan and Salah in Pannonia, Ister and Eber in Noricum, now Austria and Bavaria, and Adulas east of the Inn river, before himself settling on east of the lower Rhine river, founding what is now Duisberg, Cologne, Bonn, and Doesburg in the Netherlands. Other settlements begun by the new colonists include Mesembria, now Nesebir Bulgaria; Jadera, now Zadar in Croatia; Sala, now Zalalovo Hungary, another Sala, now Maria Saal Austria; Ebersheim, now Stockerau near Vienna, Adlerburg, now Straubing and other places in Bavaria and Austria south of the Danube.
In the following year, Nimrod was killed while sieging Aratta, and was succeeded by his commander, Lugalbanda (spelled ‘Khalbator’ by Bar Konai, but omitted by many post-cuneiform chronographies), who brought Aratta into temporary subjection and returned to Uruk. He was soon succeeded in Uruk, after only six years, by Dumuzid in 2392 BC, who was despotic like his predecessors. By around this time Akshak, Adab and Umma had been founded in Sumer. In 2386 BC, the Sakas under king Skythes expanded from Aratta north and east of the Caspian and as far as Bactria (Baksish), now Afghanistan. At the same time Janus Barwain, the fourth son of Noah born after the flood, planted a colony in Hyrcania (now northern Iran), then founded the city of Awan in Elam, with help from Japhethite architects according to the account ascribed to Methodius. In 2384 BC, some of the tribe of Gomer, under Ganges (Chi You) also travelled eastward as far as the Ganges river, where they settled as far as the Yangtze river. In 2382 BC, Reu married Ura.
In 2381 BC Janus Barwain founded the country of Shennong far to the east, called Heliochora by that same author, teaching use of the hoe there among other things. Next to them a colony of Ashur was founded, known as Yoshong and led by Hwangdi. In 2379 BC, the Massagetae and Alans took up residence east of the Don river and also spread eastward. These were Shemites descended from Mash and Gether and their father Aram, sent there by Tuiscon, although there is some confusion of their names with both Meshech son of Japheth, and Gethar or Gauthos son of Magog. The Japhethite tribe of Meshech are probably the Balkan Mushki of Moesia, along with their subtribes of Brigi and Bithyni. Tuiscon also sent Rifath Scythes (Fenius) to the Urals. The Mushki also soon crossed the Atlantic and established colonies along the Cimarron and Merrimack rivers, in Atelan or Moshakia, while some Canaanites took possession of their inheritance south of the 36th parallel. Also in 2379 BC, Dumuzid of Uruk recognized the nations of Magog, Meshech, Madai and Asshur; and Lud founded Maeonia in his inheritance of Anatolia.
In 2376 BC, the city of Ur was founded by Ur son of Kesed of the tribe of Arphaxad, and Serug was born. In this same year, battles began to be fought on earth, beginning with Enmebaragesi of Kish, whose force defeated an Elamite army that had formed against him. However, the following year Dumuzid captured Enmebaragesi, who was then succeeded in Kish by Aga. In 2374 BC, Dumuzid, presiding in opulence over an impoverished nation, was toppled by a revolt in Sumer and pursued to Harran, where he was betrayed by Inanna, formerly queen to Scythes and then Nimrod. Bel Shamash, later known as Gilgamesh and Belus, became king of Uruk in 2367 BC and defeated Aga. The notion of the Sumerian king list that his father was a ‘phantom’ refers to the party that overturned Dumuzid’s regime, who are also called ‘phantoms’ in the Sumerian Dumuzid literature. The text ascribed to Methodius also mentions a rebellion here in its sequence of events. In 2365 BC, Gomer returned from Scythia to his kingdom in Gomera, Italy, bringing with him the art of making chariots driven by horse, which also served as mobile homes. The city of Vetulonia was founded by him at this time.
In 2362 BC, Okus Weyus succeeded Gomer in Gomera. In 2361 BC, Hwangdi of Yoshong organized 20 officers under his command. In 2352 BC, Tiras son of Japheth, and Hamath and Arkad sons of Canaan migrated with colonies to the Balkans together, from their settlements in Martu. Tiras sailed from Tyre to Tyras at the mouth of the Dniester; Hamath from Hamat to Emathia, later Macedonia, and Arkad from Arqat to Arcadia, now the Peloponnese. In 2346, Kam left the throne of Kush to his son Kush, and went to Egypt. In 2342 BC Hwangdi annexed Shennong and founded the Hwashia nation, defeating Janus Barwain who withdrew to Awan in Elam, leaving his grandson Loc Duc to found the state of Xich Quy in N. Vietnam. Kam assumed the throne in Egypt from his son Wahkyanus Misraim, taking the Egyptian throne name Kheti. Some of his words survive in the later ‘Teaching for Merykare’. Kam allied with Bel Shamash, which Janus protested in a letter to Bel, but Bel was killed later that same year in the campaign against Aratta, and his son Urnungal succeeded him in Uruk. In 2339 BC, Nenual succeeded Riphath in Northern Scythia.
In 2337 BC, Mesannepada of Ur, also known as Mesilim, seized control of most cities of Sumer from Urnungal, including Uruk, Nippur, Kish, Adab and Lagash. The city of Mari, Syria was founded under Ansud around this time. In 2323 BC, Hwangdi of Hwashia defeated Ganges at the battle of Zhuolu. Ganges was succeeded by Chiaktuk, who retired to Shinshi (now Korea) while another faction (Miao) remained south of the Yangtze under Tutan.Wahkyanus Misraim was reestablished in Egypt with the throne name Meribtawe Kheti as his father Kam left him the throne to go abroad. At the same time, Janus Barwain organized Saba, Havilah and Ophir into kingdoms, two in Yemen along with Obal and Abimael, and one on the Indus. These five sons of Joktan had decided not to settle in Europe with their brothers. In 2319 BC, Serug married Milcah, daughter of Madai, and their son Nahor was born in Ur.
In 2312 BC, Kam arrived in Gomera with a large force, took over the throne from Okus Weyus, and began to misrule Italy. Janus Barwain arrived that year from Saba to the colony of Tritonia, and Hammon succeeded to the throne there, with his wife Rhea as queen. By this time, Scythes had left the throne of Aratta, Scythia and Bactria to Sebtah son of Kush, who was also left Awan by Janus Barwain, and Mesannepada of Sumer and Chaldea made war on Sebtah. The Scythians at this time expanded their settlements as far as the Don river bordering Sarmatia.
In 2309 BC, Ubbo succeeded Sueno in Sweden; he built his capital at Gamla Uppsala. In 2306 BC, Mesannepada was succeeded in Ur by Meskiagnuna, also known as Ninus. The next year Gethar died, and the Goths in Sweden transferred from Tuiscon to Ubbo. In 2304 BC Hwangdi’s son Changyi left the Hwashya court in this year to settle on the Rwoshwey river to the north. In 2302 BC, Constitutional laws were established in Tubalia, Samothea and Tuiscones. In that year Sebtah seized Nippur, the capital and ‘holy city’ of Sumer, from Meskiagnuna of Ur, and claimed suzerainty for Awan; Lagash defeated Ur and Umma and became independent under Urnanshe.
23rd Century BC
In 2300 BC, Arkad was succeded in Arcadia by Europs. In 2296 BC, Janus Barwain went from Hammon to Tubalia; while there he founded Noela and Noegla on the Atlantic coast, after the name of Kam’s wife. It is even possible that he visited Atelan. Many other cities were being built in Tubalia during Tubal’s reign including what are now Amposta, Tafela, Tudela, Toledo, Merida and Setubal. In the kingdom of Kush, Kush was succeded by Habassi.
2293 BC, the 25th year of Nahor, is when the agony of Job occured, according to the calculations of Michael the Syrian and Bar Hebraeus. In 2287 BC, Janus Barwain came to Gomera and to his displeasure found Kam ruling there. He tolerated this for 3 years and in 2284 BC drove Kam to Sicily, where he founded Camesena, now Acireale, and took Hammon’s wife Rhea, his sister, having several children with her. Janus Barwain founded Janiculum, now part of Rome, and banished Kam’s party to Curetes, south of the Tiber; he established the state of Rasenna between the Tiber and Arno rivers. In 2282 BC, Hwangdi died and there was an earthquake in Hwashya; his son Shaohao assumed the throne. In 2276 BC Chukdari succeeded Chiaktuk in Shinshi, and Akurgal succeeded Urnanshe in Lagash. In 2275 BC, Tsangchye, who had been Hwangdi’s chief minister, made Gaoyang son of Changyi, king of Hwasya with the throne name Zhuansu, deposing Shaohao.
In 2271 BC, Kam and Rhea invaded the kingdom of Hammon from Sicily and took over, forcing Hammon to exile in Crete. In 2266 BC Kalbum drove Sebtah out of Sumer and assumed the hegemony. In 2263 BC, Nahor married Iyoska. Also in that year, Sebtah left Aratta and Awan to Barzanes, and went to his father’s land of Kush, where he succeeded Habassi as king. In this same year Dionysus, illegitimate son of Hammon who had grown up in Kush, retook his father’s kingdom, Tritonia, in the war known to later historians as the Titanomachy. He forced Kam and Rhea back to Egypt, where he appointed their son, Apis, whom he had adopted, as Per'on Barsanos (Bar-Esenus or Sa-Khety). That year also, Zhuansu made innovations to the Chinese calendar zodiac.
In 2258 BC Cainan died, leaving Salah as ruler of Pannonia. In 2257 BC, Terah was born in Ur to Nahor and Iyoska. Iberus in that year succeeded his father Tubal in Tubalia, which now became known as Iberia. Some accounts say Tubal had been preparing to attack Getulia when he died. During his reign, Iberus founded two cities both named Illiberis, one near Granada, and one at Elne near the edge of his territory extending beyond the Pyrenees into southern France. In 2255 BC, Zhuansu wrote a piece of music called ‘The Answer to the Clouds’; Telchines succeeded Europs in Arcadia, and Magus succeeded his father Samothes in Samothea, during his reign founding many new settlements in his name to the edges of his territory, as well as across the channel in what is now England. The following year, Barzanes of Aratta and Awan defeated Meskiagnuna, killing him. He also stole an idol from Nahor, who was priest of Ur. Meskiagnuna’s queen Shamgan succeeded him in Ur. In 2253 BC, Sebtah left Kush and visited Iberia, where he founded Saguntum.
In 2249 BC, an earthquake destroyed the idols in the Nippur temple. In 2248 BC, Mannus succeeded his father Tuiscon in Tuiscones, he founded his capital at Mannheim on the Rhine. In 2246 BC, Eannatum succeeded Akurgal in Lagash. In 2242 BC, Janus Barwain of Rasena put Sebtah in charge of Curetes. In 2237 BC, Kalbum of Kish defeated Barzanes’ Elamite infantry on the Tigris with an army that included elephants, and therafter Kalbum spread idolatry to the defeated Aratta. However in 2235 BC he was killed by Eannatum of Lagash, while Hadanish of Hamazi was able to seize Nippur. Eannatum, also known as Lumma, Hadanish, and Shamgan then partitioned Sumer. That same year, in Arcadia Thelxion succeeded Telchines, who fled to Rhodes.
In 2232 BC, Sebtah put Saba in charge of Curetes. In 2229 BC, Lud died in Maeonia after a very long reign. In 2228 BC, Apis left the throne of Egypt temporarily to Neferkare or Karemon, while he and his father Kam visited Hadanish to learn their idolatry. Sodom, Gomorrah and Zoar were founded in Canaan at this time. The following year, Brigus, son of Meshech, was made a duke by Mannus and built Brigantion and Artsburg in the south of Tuiscones. In 2226 BC, while Kam stayed behind in Hamazi, Apis went to Kush and may have been made king there as Elektron. In 2224 BC, Apis returned to Egypt and resumed rule, calling himself Osiris, which was a name for the deified Cain before the flood.
In 2220 BC, Iubelda succeeded Iberus in Iberia, and Hyokdase succeeded Chukdari in Shinshi. In 2219 BC, the Nippur temple was again destroyed, this time by a tornado. In 2214 BC, Herman, a commander of Mannus, seized Maeonia north of the Caicus river with contingents of Brigi, Moesians and Bithynians. The following year Mannus had a son whom he named Herminon. In 2211 BC, Nanni Zames succeeded Queen Shamgan in Ur; meanwhile Sebtah died, and Janus Barwain made his own son Cranus governor of Curetes south of the Tiber. Also, Jerome indicates that Cres founded Knossos in Crete in this year. The next year, Partholon, a Magogite exiled from Sweden, settled in Ireland with 1000 colonists.
In 2208 BC, Siggo succeeded Ubbo in Sweden, and founded his capital at Sigtuna. The following year, Enshakushanna of Uruk seized Nippur from Hadanish and claimed the sovereignty of all Sumer, although Lumma of Lagash was still an independent rival. Lumma over the next few years began to seize other cities in and near Sumer, and subject them into his empire, including Mari, Asshur, Kish and Ur, where Nanni Zames remained as nominal governor. In 2206 BC Sarron succeeded Magus in Samothea, founding his capital at Old Sarum, England, and a University at Toulouse during his reign. The next year, Treber crossed the Rhine into Sarron’s territory and began founding a number of towns including Triers and Strasbourg. Some accounts would make him a son of Ninus, others a son of Mannus of Tuiscones. In 2203 BC, Janus Barwain died and his son Cranus succeeded him in Rasenna. Also at this time, Apis and his sister called Isis left Egypt and went to Canaan to spread use of the hoe.
22nd Century BC
In 2200 BC, Partholon defeated a force from Curetes, Gomera (Fomorians) that had settled across the Irish Sea and raided Eire. In 2198 BC Zhuansu died; Shuqe raised disorder among the Shennong, but it was suppressed by prince Gawsin, who took the throne of Hwashia as Ku. Salah died in Pannonia, and the Goths of Geatland got their own ruler, Erik, and independence from Siggo of Sweden.
In 2196 BC, Nebkaure was put in charge of Kush, and in 2192 BC, of Egypt as well, in the absence of Apis in Canaan. Also in 2192 BC, Terah married Edna in Ur. In 2187 BC, he bore Abram in Ur, and in that year Eannatum of Lagash seized Uruk and Nippur from Enshakushanna, but then was killed before he could be crowned king of Sumer in Nippur. Enshakushanna’s son Lugalkinishedudu then succeeded to the hegemony over Uruk, Nippur, Kish and Ur, while Enannatum succeeded Eannatum in Lagash, and Mari became independent again. In 2183 BC, Aegyrus succeeded Thelxion in Arcadia, and the following year, Entemena became king in Lagash and was allied with Uruk against Umma. In 2182 BC, Ingevon succeeded his father Mannus in Tuiscones, and declared his parents, Mannus and Sunna, to be deities, and Ku of Hwashia sent his general Chung against the Yukwai region.
In 2180 BC, a plague wiped out Partholon and most of his colonists in Eire. Nanni Zames of Ur, now independent, seized Nippur and the hegemony of Sumer from Uruk. In 2175 BC, Kam, who had become king of Bactrian empire, attacked Nanni but was defeated in Syria and beheaded. The following year, Meskiagnanna, also called Arius, succeeded Nanni Zames in Ur; in his reign he subjected all Bactria, including the Caspian region. In 2173 BC, Cranus of Rasenna put Aurunus in charge of Curetes. The year after that, Abram invented the ox-drawn plough in Ur at the age of 15. This invention, over the next few years, spread throughout Mesopotamia, and into Martu and Canaan, where it attracted the attention of Apis and Isis, who were already engaged in agricultural supervision there.
In 2166 BC, Sarah was born to Terah in Ur, and Amen became ruler in Kush. In 2159 BC, Senen succeeded Nebkaure in Egypt. In 2155 BC, the Goths too instituted idolatry. In 2154, Hyarbas succeeded in Tritonia, and Brigus, the son of Meshech who had been a commander for Mannus, was sent to Spain to succeed Iubelda in Iberia. He had numerous cities built in his name in the west of Iberia during his reign there. In 2153 BC, Enannatum II succeeded Entemena in Lagash. In 2150 BC, Aurunus succeeded Cranus in Rasenna, and a Swede named Nemed resettled Eire with colonists, defeating the Fomorians. In 2149 BC, Thurimachos succeeded Aegyrus in Arcadia, or Aegialea. and in 2148 BC Keobuldan succeeded Hyokdase in Shinshi.
In 2146 BC, Sarron, returning from visiting Isis in Canaan, drowned off the isthmus of Corinth; Druis succeeded him in Samothea; Queen Nehasset Nays succeeded Amen in Kush, and Lycurgus, king of Thrace, expelled Mopsus the Moesian and Sipylus the Scythian into Ingevon’s territory. The following year, Lugal-anne-Mundu of Adab, also known as Amraphel, usurped Arius’ empire including Nippur, Ur, Sumer, Elam, Marhashi, Asshur, Gutium and Hamazi. In 2143 BC, Siggo died in Sweden, and in that year the warrior queen Myrina seized Tritonia from Hyarbas. By some accounts she was a daughter of Japheth. She went on to seize Getulia and even Atelan with her army of female warriors, but could not defeat the Gorgons, or Canaanites south of the 36th parallel. She then returned to ravage Iberia. In 2141 BC, Nemed died of plague, and the Fomorians, based on Tory Island, began to tax the Magogites in Eire for 207 years; and Inachos became the first king of Argos on the Pelopponese.
In 2139 BC, Merykare succeeded Senen in Egypt. The following year, Abram married Sara in Ur. In 2136 BC, Istevon succeeded Ingevone in Tuiscones. In 2134 BC, Zhi succeeded Ku in Hwasya. By then Myrina had advanced through Egypt, with whom she was at peace, and seized Martu, Hatti and Maeonia, prompting the Griponi tribe to flee to Rasenna in that year. Myrina then seized some Aegian islands and founded a temple on Samothrace. She and her commanders founded the settlements of Myrina, Mytilene, Priene, Cyme, and Pitane which were named after them. In 2132 BC, the Sinite tribe, cowherders who had emigrated from Canaan, entered Kush and settled in the highlands of Ethiopia, and in 2131 BC, Bardus succeeded Druis in Samothea
In 2127 BC, Abram burned down the temple in Ur, and took refuge in Haran. The next year, the tribe of Auson fled Syria by sea to take refuge in eastern Italy, and Myrina crossed into Europe, invading Emathia and Epirus. In 2125 BC, Zhi was deposed, and Yao succeeded him in Huashia. In 2119 BC, Istevone, king of Tuiscones, sent the generals Mopsus and Sipylus against Myrina, whose force had advanced north in the Balkans as far as the Save river. They defeated her there; she and most of her army were slain. Mopsus continued the campaign to liberate the territory she had seized, through Cilicia as far as Martu. and in 2115 BC, Apis returned to the throne in Kush as Horkam, succeeding Queen Nehasset. In 2114 BC, Yao formed a standing army in Hwashia.
In 2113 BC, Lugal-anne-mundu and his Elamite vassal Kudur-lagamar defeated Merykare and annexed the region of Sodom. Apis returned to Egypt around this time and established a new capital in the south at Thebes with the throne name Mentuhotep. In 2112 BC, Abraham was blessed and began to learn the holy language, as the Book of Kufale says. In 2111 BC, the region of Juso submitted to Yao. In 2110 BC, Abraham moved to Canaan from Haran, and that year, Aurunus of Rasenna put Malot Tages in charge of Curetes. The following year, Malot Tages succeeded Aurunus in Rasenna. Also in that year, Hebron was built in Canaan, and Damascus was resettled with Hittites by Mopsus. In 2107 BC there was a famine in Canaan, and Abraham went from Canaan to Egypt where he and Sara met Apis, and in Hwashia, Yao established the Ministry of Works.
In 2104 BC, Leucippus succeded Thurimachus in Aegialea. In 2101 BC, Avaris (Tanis) was built in northern Egypt, and the Canaanite tribe of Ayner Arwad migrated to Kush on account of the famine in Canaan. Also that year, Tagus Orma succeeded Brigus in Iberia, calling his kingdom Taga, and Phoroneus succeeded Inachos in Argos.
21st Century BC
In 2100 BC, Abraham returned from Egypt to Bethel in Canaan, and Sodom rebelled from their tributary status to Elam; also Phaeton settled his people in Gomera on the Po river, having finally found a home after his sojourns following their displacement from Canaan by Myrina. Dangun Imgum was made king in Gojoseon, formerly Shinshi. In 2099 BC occured the War of Kings in which Abraham’s army defeated Lugal-anne-mundu and the others. Lugal-anne-mundu of Adab’s empire broke apart in the wake of this defeat, as city governors declared their independence. Sharumiter became king in Mari, Lugalanda in Lagash, Puzur-nirah in Akshak, and Lugal-zagesi (Baleus Xerxes) in Umma. Sharumiter at first controlled Nippur, along with the title King of the Land. At the same time, in Northern Egypt Merykare Kheti in Heracleopolis rebelled against Mentuhotep Apis in Thebes.
In 2098 BC, Ishmael was born to Abraham and Hagar in Canaan. In 2097 BC the ‘pygmies’ submitted to Yao in Hwashya. In 2094 BC, after a harsh and oppressive tyranny in Lagash by Lugalanda, he was replaced by a populist reformer, Urukagina; In 2092 BC, Puzur-nirah captured Nippur and the hegemony of Sumer from Mari. In 2090 BC, Urukagina issued a legal code for Lagash which included the banning of wives taking more than one husband. The next year, Puzur-nirah of Akshak was deposed by the Nippur priesthood and replaced with Queen Kugbau, who had formerly been a popular Kish tavern hostess. In 2087 BC, Baleus seized Lagash from Urukagina. The next year, Saba I became independent from Apis in Kush.
In 2084 BC, fires poured from the sky, not only destroying Sodom and Gomorrah, but in volcanic eruptions in Italy at Vesuvius, Cumae, and on the Danube, and a bright star was seen in Hwashya with other signs. Abraham went to Beersheba in that year, and Isaac was born; Herminon succeeded Istevone in Germany; his capital was at Hermansheim, now Regensburg. Apis campaigned against Kush in that year. The next year, Ur-zababa succeeded Kugbau in Nippur. Apis again campaigned against Kush in 2082 BC, conquering Nubia as far as the 2nd cataract. In 2081 BC, Hagar and Ishmael journeyed to Paran; and the Telchines and Megarans made war on Phoroneus of Inachia in the Pelopponese. In 2077 BC, Baleus Xerxes destroyed Kish and seized Nippur from Ur-zababa. In 2074 BC, Ogyges became king in Attica. In 2073 BC, Betus succeeded Tagus in Iberia, calling his kingdom Turdetania, and Merykare Kheti was defeated by Apis Mentuhotep. The next year, Melchizidek established Jerusalem. In 2071 BC, Phaeton left his son Ligur in Liguria and went to Egypt and Nubia, but as there was a famine, took his tribe (Weyto Semar) to Kush. In 2069 BC, Sharukin (Sargon) of Akkad seized Sumer from Baleus Xerxes; and Antef I (Typhon) became governor in Egypt as Apis again toured Africa, Asia and Europe to spread use of the plough.
In 2068 BC, Abraham and Isaac went to Mt Zion, then returned to Beersheba. Longho succeeded Bardus in Samothea; Yao banished his son Chu to Tanshui. In 2067 BC, Sicanus succeeded his father, Malot Tages, in Rasenna. In 2066 BC, Sargon campaigned in Cyprus. In 2065 Yao ordered his baron Kwan to regulate the Ho river. In 2058 BC, Sargon campaigned in Hatti, took Kanesh and forced king Nurdaggal of Burushanda to submit; by this time he had conquered Elam, Subartu (Ashur), and Aram, and seized Mari, Yarmuti and Ebla from Amurru (Martu). Antef II Wahankh (Isoqos) succeeded Antef I in Egypt.
In 2057 BC, Marsus succeeded Herminon in Germany, with his capital at Marsburg. Yao degraded baron Kwan, and the following year, he appointed Shun as his successor, and Sofarid succeeded Saba I in Kush. Rimush succeeded his father Sargon in Akkad, all Rimush's lands were in rebellion as Apis travelled through Syria, Hatti and Maeonia with his entourage. In 2054 BC, Abraham returned from Beersheba to Hebron, as Rimush defeated Kaku of Ur and slew many in Kazallu, Umma, etc. but his rule extended only as far as the Khabur River. In 2053 BC, Rimush defeated Sidgau of Warakhshe between Susa and Awan; Yao gave the throne of Hwashya to Shun In 2051 BC, there were major deluges in Attica, Gojoseon and Hwashya, and Apis was made king in both Argos and Sicyon. In 2050 BC, Dangun built a castle at Samlang.
In 2049 BC, Apis slew Lycurgus of Thrace, and gave the territory from the Danube as far as Damascus to Maron, who founded the city of Maronea in Thrace. The Ligurians under Ligures occupied from the Po to the Danube in Italy in that year; Shun enacted a penal code in Hwashya, and his General Yu defeated Tsau and Wei. In 2048 BC, Manishtushu succeeded Rimush in Akkad. The next year, Deabus (Geryon) the Curetan succeeded Betus in Iberia; In 2045 BC, Bardus II succeeded Longho in Samothea; Manishtushu defeated Anshan, and 32 kings in a naval battle.
In 2043 BC, envoys of Tashlultum, mother of Manishtushu, arrived in Hwashya; In 2041 BC, the Palensan Curetans took over in Rasenna, and in that same year Naram-sin (Belochis) succeeded Manishtushu (Manithrus) in Akkad. In 2039 BC when Sarah passed, Abraham bought a cave from Ephron the Hittite near Hebron. In 2038 BC, Shun divided Hwashya into 12 provinces. In 2036 BC, Isaac married Rebecca, and Naram-sin defeated Uruk. In 2034 BC, there was a diplomatic meeting between Shun of Hwashya and prince Buru of Gojoseon. In 2032 BC, Naram-sin captured Dahishatal of Subartu in Asshur. The next year, he defeated Shenaminda at the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates. Until 2028 BC, he conquered Lebanon and Amanus, then he battled Pamba of Hatti, Zipani of Kanesh, and 15 other kings. In 2027 BC, prince Buru of Gojoseon did homage to Hwashya.
In 2026 BC, Apis left Messapus in Aigialea, Argus in Argos, his son Macedon in Emathia (now called Macedonia), and travelled up the Danube to Istria, where Eber finally died, so he put Taurus on the throne there. While there he taught ploughing and brewing to the Germans, and built Abensburg. Meanwhile his grandson Albion seized Great Britain from Bardus II, while his brother Bergion ruled the Orkneys and Ireland. Also in that year, Askendi succeeded Sofard in Kush. Askendi may be the same as Isokos or Hysqos Antef II of Egypt. In 2025 BC, Naram-sin conquered Aram and Simurrum, and Yao died. In 2024 BC, Isaac founded a settlement at Ail. In 2023 BC, Shun made his son Ekun prince of Shang. In 2022 BC Sharkalisharri succeeded Naram-sin in Akkad. In 2020 BC, the Hittites founded Jericho in Amurru and in 2019 BC, Shun officially made Yu his successor in Hwashya. In 2017 BC, Esau and Jacob were born to Isaac, and Yu subjected the Yew-miao.
In 2013 BC, Sharkalisharri captured Sharlag of Gutium. The next year, he defeated Amurru at Jebel Bishri, and the Curetan Lomnini took over Iberia from Deabus. In 2011 BC, Apis went into Italy to drive out the Palensans, Sharkalishari defeated the Elamites at Akshak, and the Nabateans, descended from Ishmael, and Midianites, from Keturah, were established at Paran. Gambrivius succeeded Herminon in Germany. In 2010 BC, Sharkalishari “imposed the yoke on Gutium”, and the prince of Huntu made tribute to Shun. In 2008 BC, Lucus succeeded Bardus I in Samothea, and Typhon (Antef) III succeeded Antef II in Egypt. In 2007 BC, Buru succeeded Dangun in Gojoseon.
In 2005 BC, Ilulu succeeded Sharkalisharri in Akkad as three contenders competed for the throne and the Gutians raided, causing the empire to fall apart. Ur declared independence under Baleus, Lagash under Urbaba, Susa under Kutik-Inshushinak. Buru commanded his people to wear blue and plait the hair, and established weights and prices. In 2003 BC, Abraham passed away. In 2002 BC, the Gutians occupied most of Mesopotamia, Dudu kept Akkad, Shun gave the throne of Hwashya to Yu. In 2001 BC, Apis left the Curetan Lestrigones in control of Italy and made a final return to Egypt claiming the throne again as Mentuhotep; Hohey came to the throne of Kush following Askendu. Gudea succeeded Urbaba.
20th Century BC
In 1996 BC, Gudea of Lagash smote Anshan, to the east in Elam. In 1995 BC, Apis sent an expedition to ‘Punt’ (the Horn), meanwhile Typhon usurped the throne in Egypt, and killed Apis. This act was later associated and confused with the old Cainite myth of Seth killing Cain before the flood, which never actually happened. (It was Lamech the Cainite who killed his ancestor Cain; see A New History of Egypt 2008.) However, Apis’ son, Hercules then avenged his father, killed Typhon, and seized the throne as Nebtawyre. In 1994 BC, Hercules Nebtawyre left Amenemhat I as king in Egypt, and drove out the rebel Curetan (House of Kheti) governors Anteus in Libya, Busiris in Canaan, Milinis in Crete, and another Typhon in Phrygia where he substituted his son by Omphale Atys, as well as the Lomnimi from Iberia, where he substituted king Hispalus, then he made war on Lestrigon in Italy. Ishkun-addu in Mari. Also around this time,Shu-durul succeeded Dudu in Akkad, and Yu died in Hwashia, by this time known simply as Xia (Shia).
In 1991 BC, Qi became king in Xia, after 3 years of mourning for Yu "the Great". The next year, Isaac moved from Hebron to Beersheba; and the battle of Kan was fought in Xia. In 1986, Apil-Kin ruled in Mari. In 1984 BC, Hercules expelled Lestrigon, and ruled Rasenna himself. He also defeated the forces of Albion and Bergion on the Rhone. In 1983 BC, as the Gutians’ neglect drove up grain prices and caused another famine in the Middle East, Esau sold his birthright to Jacob for a bowl of lentils. Qi of Xia sent his minister Mentu to Ba in that year. In 1982 BC, Isaac went to Gerar, where he met Abimelech, king of Philistia. The next year, Ur-ningirsu II succeeded Gudea in Lagash.
In 1980 BC, Qi banished his son Wukwan to Xihe. In 1979 BC, Eratus succeeded Messapus in Aegialea. In 1978 BC, Celtas succeeded Lucus in Samothea, now called Celtia; there was a great fire in Pyrenees between Celtia and Iberia. Kutik-Inshushinak annexed Akkad. In 1977 BC, Utuhegal of Uruk drove the Gutians out of Sumer, beginning the "Sumerian renaissance" (officially known as the 'Kingdom of Sumer and Akkad'. Wukwan rebelled against Qi in Xihe, and was defeated, and Qi was succeeded by Taikang in Xia. In 1976 BC, Urnammu of Ur succeeded Utu-hengal who drowned, and the next year issued his famous Law Code.
In 1974 BC, Amenemhat I named Senusret as coregent in Egypt, and Senusret campaigned in Libya. In 1973 BC, Taikang was succeded by Zhongkang in Xia, and In 1971 BC, Kutik-Inshushunak died and Elam was temporarily divided among Susa, Anshan and Shimashki. In 1969 BC, November 5, a solar eclipse was seen in Xia, and Zhongkang sent the Prince of Yin to punish the licentious astronomy ministry. In 1967 BC Suevus succeeded Gambrivius in Germany; In 1966 BC, Urnammu ravaged Gutium, and Adglag succeeded Hohey ruled in Kush; Xiang succeeded Zhongkang in Xia, and campaigned against the Hwai tribe. In 1965 BC, Hercules again fought the Curetans in Italy. In 1964 BC, Amenemhat I died, and Senusret I ruled alone in Egypt; he campaigned in Kush, meanwhile Xiang campaigned against the Feng and Hwang tribes in Xia.
In 1962 BC, Hispanus succeeded Hispalus in Spain, and Isaac left Gerar; in 1960 BC, Hercules destroyed the Curetans in Italy. In 1959 BC, the Yu tribe submitted to Xiang in Xia. In 1958 BC, Shulgi (Altades) succeeded Urnammu in Ur, and the warlord Hanzhuo killed the minister Houyi in Xia. In 1956 BC, Senusret campaigned in Kush, and Iasus succeeded Argos in Argos. On August 13, a solar eclipse was seen in Gojoseon, and Buru was succeeded by Karig (Gareuk). In 1955 BC, Isaac returned to Beersheba. In 1954 BC, the first Korean alphabet was invented.
In 1951 BC, the Duke of Shang brought carriages and horses to the capital of Xia, Shangqiu. Iddin-Ilum in Mari. In 1950 BC, in Gojoseon, Gareuk exiled Sakjung, who founded the Xiongnu tribe. In 1949 BC, Jacob stole the blessing from Esau by tricking Isaac. The next year, Jacob fled to Harran, and Esau went to Seir (Edom). In 1946 BC, Adgala succeeded Adglag in Kush; Ilum-Ishar in Mari; Gareuk exiled the rebel chief Hyobyano to Japan; and in Xia, Hanzhuo ravaged the area of Ge. In 1944 BC, Galathes, son of Hercules by Galathea, daughter of Celtas, succeeded Celtas in Celtia.
In 1941 BC Jacob married Leah and Rachel, and his first son Reuben was born. In 1940 BC, Hanzhuo sent his son Jiao against Zhengwan, Simon was born; The next year, Jiao defeated the Duke of Chinsin, in ships, at Wei. In 1938 BC Levi was born, Shulgi sacked Der; and Jiao killed Emperor Xiang in Xia, which had no king for a time. Xiang’s wife escaped and bore Shaokang in 1937 BC. In 1936 Shulgi proclaimed his own divinity, and Dan was born; in 1935 Shulgi sacked Karhar. In 1934 BC Judah was born; the Fir Bolg, an exiled Nemedian group, seized Eire from the Fomorians, led by their king Slanga, while Shulgi campaigned in Simurrum; Turam-Dagan in Mari. In 1933 BC Naphtali was born, Slanga was succeeded by Rudraige in Eire, Plemnaeus succeeded Eratus in Aigialea, and Shulgi defeated Simurrum. In 1932 BC Gad was born, Shulgi sacked Harshi, and Senusret I made Nubkaure Amenemhat II his coregent. In 1931 BC, Issachar was born, Rudraige was succeeded by Gann and Genan in Eire. In 1930 BC, Asser was born, and in 1929 BC Zebulon, Joseph and Dina were born, Hercules Lybicus went to Hispania and succeeded his grandson Hispanus; he left Rasenna to his son by Araxes, daughter of Gambrivius: Tuscus, whom he summoned from Scythia. Amenemhat II ruled alone in Egypt from this year. In 1928 BC, Shulgi sacked Karhar again, and Jacob fled from Haran and returned to Canaan.
In 1927 BC, Shulgi defeated Simurrum again; and Sengan succeeded Gann and Genan in Eire. In 1926 BC, Shulgi sacked Karhar a 3rd time. In 1925 BC, Shulgi sacked Anshan in Elam, in 1924 BC, Nubkaure sent a trade expedition to Lebanon. In 1922 BC, Shulgi built a defensive wall in Mesopotamia; Nubkaure’s troops destroyed Iwai (?) in Syria, Fiacha Cennfinnan killed Sengan and usurped his throne in Eire. In 1921 BC Hercules died in Hispania and was succeeded by Hesperus.
In 1920 BC - Jacob (Israel) sacked Shechem, and defeated Hamor the Hivite; his son Benjamin was born. In 1918 BC, Shaokang of Xia fled to the Yu tribe while Jiao sought to kill him, and began to fight the rebels. In 1917 BC, Rinal killed Fiacha and usurped the throne in Eire. In 1916 BC, Shulgi sacked Shashrum, and Lakniduga succeeded Adgala in Kush. In 1915 BC, Shulgi campaigned against Simurrum and Lullubi, and Israel defeated 7 Amorite chiefs. Vandalus succeeded Suavus in Germania. In 1914 BC, Joseph was sold into Egypt, and Shulgi defeated Simurrum, Lullubi, Karhar and Arbil. Puzur-Ishtar succeeded Turam-Dagan in Mari in this year also.
In 1913 BC, Shulgi of Ur sacked Kimash (Shimashki in Elam, ruled by Girname) and Hurti. In 1911 BC, he sacked Kimash, Hurti, and Harshi; Osagu succeeded Garyuk in Gojoseon; and Fodbgen killed Rinal and usurped the throne in Eire. In 1910 BC, Amarsin (Mamitus) succeeded Shulgi in Ur, and Osagu of Gojoseon made his younger brother Osadal first king of the Mongols. In 1909 BC, Amarsin sacked Arbil. In 1907 BC, Yokaid killed Fodbgen and usurped the throne in Eire.
In 1906 BC, a delegation of Chinese visited Gojoseon. Criasus succeeded Iasus in Argos. In 1905 BC, Amarsin of Ur sacked Shashrum and Shurudhum. In 1904 BC, a shipyard was built in Gojoseon, and Amar-sin sacked Bitum Rabium, Jabru, and Huhnuri. Tazitta I was reigning in Simashki at this time. In 1901 BC, Shu-sin succeeded Amarsin in Ur; Puzur-Asshur I in Assyria; Narbon in Gallia succeeded Galathes, who was sent by Tuscus to Sicily; Isaac died; and the forces of Israel (Jacob) defeated those of his brother Esau (Edom).
19th century BC
In 1899 BC, Shu-Sin ravaged Simanum. Tazitta was still in Elam. Shalimahum succeeded Puzur-Assur in Assur. Amenemhat II made Senusret II coregent. And Shaokang sent general Ru Ai against Ge province and the rebel leader Jiao was killed. In 1898 BC, Shu-Sin built a defensive wall of Martu across Mesopotamia. Shaokang defeated Han Zhuo, and became emperor in Xia.
In 1897 BC, Senusret II succeeded alone in Egypt; and the Fang people come to do homage to Shaokang. The Tuatha De Danaan invaded Banba, defeated Eochaid and expelled the Fir Bolg at the Battle of Mag Tuir, Bres became high king while Nuada recovered from his battle wounds. In 1895 BC, Shu-Sin sacked Zabshalli, Ebarat I reigned in Elam. In c. 1894 BC Ilushuma succeeded Shalimahum in Ashur. In 1893 BC, Ibbi-Sin succeeded Shu-Sin in Ur. Simashki also annexed Awan and Susa that year, and Phares & Zerah were born to Judah.
The following year, the Seven Years' Famine began throughout the Near East (Egypt, Canaan and Mesopotamia), and Osagu of Josun ordered Shikdal to suppress Xia. Ishbi-Erra became an independent ruler in Isin. In 1891 BC, Ibbi-Sin ravaged Simurrum and Israel moved to Egypt on account of the famine; and in 1890 BC, Nuada returned as king of the Tuath De in Banba. Ishbi-Erra of Isin suppressed the Amorites (though he was himself of Amorite origin). Senusret III became coregent in Egypt. In 1889 BC, Hitlal-Erra ruled in in Mari.
In 1888 BC, Alteus succeeded Tuscus in Rasenna. In 1886 BC Manturay succeeded Lakniduga in Kush. The following year, Ibbi-Sin of Ur campaigned in Huhnuri and Anshan in Elam, and Orthopolis succeeded Plemnaeus in Aegialea. In 1882 BC, Ishbi-Erra of Isin defeated Kimash and Elam; Sesostris expanded against Kush to the 2nd cataract. Hanun-Dagan succeeded Hitlal-Erra in Mari
In 1880 BC, Ibbi-Sin defeated Susa & Awan in Elam; Senusret III (Sesostris) became sole Pharaoh in Egypt; Shaokang moved his court to Yuen. The following year, Atlas Kittim expelled his brother Hesperus from Hispania, driving Hesperus to Rasenna where he took the throne from Alteus. In 1877 BC, Ibbi-Sin subjected the Amorites. Kindattu was reigning in Elam at this time. Also in that year, Zhu succeeded Shaokang in Xia. The next year, Sesostris campaigned in Asia, defeating Midian and Canaan at Shechem, and penetrated as far as India, Scythia and Thrace, according to the Greeks.
By 1875 BC Sesostris was campaigning in Kush again, and the next year Isi-Dagan ruled in Mari; while Teutanes succeded Vandalus in Sarmata. In 1873 BC, Erishum I of Asshur succeeded Ilushuma; Guil succeded in Gojosun. Zhu moved the capital of Xia from Yuen to Laoqiu in that year. In 1872 BC, a devastating hurricane hit Ur, and Sesostris retreated from Kush.
In 1871 BC, the Elamites sacked Ur; Lugdus succeeded Narbon in Gallia; and there was a plague of locusts in Gojosun. In 1870 BC, Ishbi-Erra of Isin took Ur from the Elamites and became the main power in Sumer; Amenemhat III became coregent in Egypt, Yaqob died there and was buried in Canaan. Zhu raided Sanshao and captured one of the “nine tailed foxes”. Lug (=Lugdus?) succeeded Nuada in Eire. In 1869 BC, an almanac was constructed in Gojosun. In 1868, Itur-? succeded Isi-Dagan in Mari; Atlas Kittim took Rasenna from Hesperus, naming it Italia, and leaving his son Sicorus king in Hispania.
In 1865 BC, people from Shindok accidentally reached Gojosun, and Minister Ming died in Xia. In 1864 BC , Shu-Ilishu succeeded Ishbi-Erra in Isin, and in 1862 BC, Amer-nunnu ruled in Mari. The following year Zhu died, and was succeded by Hwai (Fen). In 1860 BC, the ‘9 Yi tribes of east’ came to pay homage to Hwai, and in 1858 BC, Talmun succeeded Guil in Gojosun. In 1856 BC, Ter-dagan succeeded Amer-nunnu in Mari. In 1854 BC, Iddin-Dagan succeded Shu-Ilishu in Isin. Iddin Dagan fought the Amorites near Kakkulatum; he also lost control of Nippur.
In 1853 BC, Phorbas succeeded Criasus in Argos. In c. 1851 BC, Rakhu ruled in Kush, and Senusret 3 died, leaving Amenemhat III sole Pharaoh in Egypt. In c. 1850 BC, Eparti 2 of Simashki founded the Epartid dynasty in Elam. In the following year, Morges succeded his fathe Atlas Kittim in Italia. In 1848 BC, Dagan-? succeded Amer-nunnu in Mari , reigning there until 1842 BC. In 1847 BC, Alman Hercules succeeded Teutanes in Germany. In 1846 BC, Baron Yung of Loh fought Baron Fengyi of Ho in Xia, and Beligius succeeded Lugdus in Celtica.
In 1842 BC, Ishme-Dagan (Sferus) succeeded Iddin-Dagan in Isin. He regained control of Nippur. The next year, Itur-Shamash became independent in Kisurra. In 1836 BC, Gungunum, another chieftain of Amorite descent, established independence in Larsa. In 1834 BC, Ikunum succeded Erishum in Asshur, and Gungunum of Larsa sacked Bashimi. In 1832 BC, he sacked Anshan. The year after that, Hwai appointed Baron of Kunwu’s son governor in Yousu and in 1830 BC, Mac Cuill killed Lug in Banba; his grandfather the Dagda took the throne.
In 1829 BC, Camboblascon succeeded Morges in Tuscany, and in 1828 BC Hwai had a circular prison built., while Manamaltel / Mamelus / Memkaron succeeded Itur-Shamash in Kisurra. In 1827 BC, the warlord Gungunum took over Ur. In 1825 BC, Lipit-Ishtar succeeded Ishme-Dagan in Isin, and in 1824 BC, he promulgated a new law code. Amenemhat IV succeeded his father Amenemhat III in that year. In 1822 BC, Hanyul succeeded Talmun in Gojosen, and Marathonius succeeded Orthopolis in Sicyon. In the next year, Sargon I succeeded Ikunum in Asshur, and Sabe I succeeded Rakhu in Kush, and in 1820 BC Mang succeeded Hwai in Xia. In that year, Romanessos became subking of the mountain aborigines, Sicanus succeeded Sicorus in Hispania, and Jasius Janigena was made Coritus, or heir of Camboblascon in Tuscany.
In 1819 BC, Athens was founded by Cecrops, Joseph died in Goshen, and Jasius Janigena succeeded Beligius in Celtica. In 1817 BC, Triopas succeded Phorbas in Argos; in 1816 BC Lipit Ishtar repulsed the Amorites and Gungunum defeated Malgium. In the next year Ur-Ninurta succeeded Lipit-Ishtar in Isin , and Queen Sobeknefru replaced Amenemhat IV in Egypt.
In 1813 BC, Yakbim Sekhaenre founded the 14th dynasty in Goshen, then in 1811 BC Sekhemre Khutawi Sobekhotep I became first pharaoh of the 13th dynasty in Upper Egypt (Thebes). In 1809 BC, Abisare succeeded Gungunum in Larsa, and control of Nippur returned to Isin. The year after that, Sekhemkare Sonbef succeeded Sobekhotep I in Thebes, Mang caught fish in the East Sea; and Halium became king in Ilip-Akusum.
In 1804 BC, Nerikare succeeded Sonbef in Thebes, and was replaced the following year by Sekhemkare Amenemhat V in Thebes, while Ya’ammu Nubwoserre succeeded Yakbim in Goshen. In 1801 BC, Abisare of Larsa defeated Isin.
18th century BC
In 1800 BC, Egypt went to war in Canaan with Manamaltiel of Kisurra, as Ameny Qemau succeeded Amenemhat V in Thebes. In 1799 BC, Sumu-ditana of Kazallu died and was succeeded by Yamtsiel. Sumu-Abum (Sparetus) then declared independence from Kazallu and founded the kingdom of Babylon. In the next year, Sumuel succeeded Abisare in Larsa, Hotepibre succeeded Ameny in Thebes, and Ur-Ninurta died, leaving the throne of Isin to Bur-Sin. Ipiq-Adad I became king in Eshnunna that year. In 1797 BC, Sumu-Abum seized the walls of Ilip. Abdi-Era replaced Halium in Ilip-Akusum, and Sharrasiurum succeeded Manamaltiel in Kisurra.
In 1796 BC, Iasius Ianegena ruled in Italy following Camboblascon. The next year, Iufni for a few months, and then Amenemhat VI ruled in Thebes, following Hotepibre. Also that year, Ubaya succeeded Sharrasiurum in Kisurra, Sumuel of Larsa sacked Akusum & Kazallu, and Manana succeeded Abdi-Era in Ilip-Akusum. And in 1794 BC, Sumuel defeated Uruk.
In c. 1793 BC, Qareh Khawoserre I succeeded Yakbim in Goshen, and the following year, Marathus succeeded Marathonius in Sicyon; and Nebnuni succeeded Amenemhat in Thebes. In 1791 BC, Sumuel of Larsa sacked Pinaratim; and Azagan succeeded Sabe in Kush. The next year, Sehetepibre succeeded Nebnuni in Thebes; and Siceleus succeeded Sicanus in Hispania. In 1789 BC, Sumuel of Larsa seized Sabum and villages on Euphrates and Zikrum succeded Ubaya in Kisurra, and in 1788 BC, he defeated Kish. Sewadjkare, then Nejemibre succeded Sehetepibre in Thebes that year, and the Prince of Shang removed to Yin in Xia.
In 1787 BC, Sumu-Abum of Babylon seized Kazallu, and defeated Larsa; Khaankhre Sobekhotep succeeded Nejemibre in Thebes. In 1785 BC, Sumulael succeeded Sumu-Abum in Babylon, and Shariya became governor in Eshnunna. The following year, Sumuel of Larsa defeated Kazallu. In 1783 BC, Sumuel seized the town of Nannaisha, and Sumulalel of Babylon defeated Kazallu; Naqimum succeeded Manana in Ilip-Akusum and Belakum followed Shariya as governor in Eshnunna ; meanwhile Ammu Ahotepre succeeded Qareh in Goshen and Renseneb, then Hor Awybre followed Khaankhre in Thebes; and Alman Hercules died in Teutones; a struggle ensued among his sons Hunnus, Helvetius, Noricus, and Boius. Another son, Theur, occupied land on the south of the Danube with the Cimmerians / Cimbri, later he expanded along the Black sea coast, as his wife Haks invaded Anatolia and founded Apasa (Ephesus).
In 1782 BC, Puzur-asshur II succeeded Sharrukin in Asshur. In 1780 BC, Bur-sin of Isin became king of Kisurra after Zikrum. In 1779 BC, Io returned from Italy to Egypt; and war erupted between Iasius and Siceleus vs. Dardanus & Romanessus. The next year, Sheshi Maaibre succeeded Ammu in Goshen, and in 1777 BC, Ahimarasi succeeded Naqimum in Ilip-Akusum; Lipit-Enlil succeeded Bur-Sin in Isin, Abi-Shamash became king in Kisurra, and Corinth was founded as Ephyra.
In 1776 BC, Warassa succeeded Belkakum as gov. in Eshnunna; and in 1775 BC Sekemrekhutawy Kawbaw succeeded Hor Awybre in Thebes. In China, the Prince of Shang removed to Yin. In 1774 BC, Naram-sin succeeded Puzur-Asshur in Asshur, and in the next year Djedkheperew, then Sedjefakare succeeded Kawbaw in Thebes. Also, the Court of Areopagus was established in Greece, and Sumulael of Babylon sacked Kish from Ilip-Akusum’s domain.
In 1772 BC, Echyreus succeeded Marathios in Aigialea, and Sumuel of Larsa took Nippur from Lipit-Enlil, who was succeeded by Erra-Imiti in Isin. In 1771 BC, Crotopus succeeded Triopas in Argos, and in 1770 BC, Ibalpiel I succeeded Warassa in Eshnunna, while Sewhan succeded Hanyul in Josun; In 1769 BC, Sumuel sacked Umma; Cranaus succeeded Cecrops in Athens; Erra-Imiti retook Nippur; and Sewhan set a 5% income tax.
In 1768 BC, Nur-Adad succeeded Sumuel in Larsa; Erra-Immiti seized Kisurra, Khutawyre Wegaf succeeded Sedjefakare in Thebes, and Sumulael of Babylon drove Yahzirel from Kazallu. The following year, Erra-Immiti destroyed the wall of Kazallu; Sumulael destroyed the wall of Kish; and Sewhan spied as commoner in Xia, before reorganizing the government of Josun. In 1766 BC, Aminum of Unina took Shaduppum; there was a bumper rice harvest in josun, Khendjer succeeded Wegaf in Thebes. Apteras became king in Crete, the floods of Deucalion started in Thessaly., and Sumulael again defeated Kazallu.
In 1765 BC Sin-abum of ? took Sit, and and there was a major fire in Thessaly. In 1764 BC, Enlil-Bani succeeded Erra Imiti in Isin; and in 1763 BC, 2 Ipiq-adad succeeded Ibalpiel in Eshnunna. A huge 3 footed crow was reported at the Josen palace that year. In 1762 BC, Ashul succeeded Sewhan in Josun, Sumu-yamutbala became king in Ilip-Akusum, and in 1761 BC, Xie succeeded Mang in Xia, Susel Atozanis succeeded Azagen in Kush, Aminum defeated Ipiq-adad, and Sumulael again defeated Yahzirel.
In 1760 BC, Ipiq-adad defeated Aminum; Wuchak rebelled in Josun and drove Ashul from the capital; and Amphictyon son of Deucalion succeeded Cranaus in Athens. The next year, Ipiq-adad took Ziquratum, and Hellen son of Deucalion became king in Phythia. In 1758 BC, Smenkhare Imyremeshaw succeded Khendjer in Thebes. In 1757 BC Ashul was restored to the capital of Josun.
In 1754 BC Hercules Desinaus was in Phoenicia (per Jerome). In 1752 BC, Siniddinam succeeded Nur-Adad in Larsa; Manium succeeded Sumu-yamutbala in Ilip-Akusum . Shamshi-adad was born, and Sin-Abushu ruled in Nerebtum. In 1751 BC Aminum of Unina died and there was an eclipse visible there. The following year, Delbaeth succeeded the Dagda in Banba; Prince Zihan of Yin killed by Mianchen of Youyi; Dardanus killed his brother Iasius, fled to Samothrace; Coribantus succeeded iasius in Italy, Allobrox in Celtica; Lusus succeeded Siceleus in Hispania; Erechtonius succeeded Amphictyon in Athens; Lacedaemon was founded, and Sthenelaus succeeded Crotopus in Argos.
In 1749 BC, Siniddinam of Larsa defeated Babylon, and Sabium succeeded Sumulael in Babylon. The year after that, Siniddinam seized Ibrat and Malgium, and Arcas subjected the Pelasgi in Arcadia. In 1747 BC, Siniddinam sacked Eshnunna, and in 1746 BC he seized Nippur; Sehetepkare Intef followed imyremeshaw in Thebes; and the forces of Yin and Ho defeated Youyi. Vines were cultivated in Greece.
In 1745 BC Sineribam succeeded Siniddinam in Larsa; Nehsy succeeded Sheshi in Goshen. The next year, 1744 BC, Sabium of Babylon defeated Larsa, and Nuya, then Sheneh followed Nehsy in Goshen. In 1743 BC, Siniqisham succeeded Sineribam in Larsa, and Asshur took Hupshum. In 1742 BC Siniqisham seized Pinaratim,and Nazarum; a “Flood in a remote land” (Thessaly?) was reported in the Mari Eponym Chronicle.
In 1741 BC Amen II succeeded Susel in Kush; Zambia followed Enlil-bani in Isin. In Xia, Xie honors chiefs of the white, black,red, yellow peoples. In 1739 BC Siniqisham of Larsa defeated Kazallu, Babylon, Elam, & Zambia of Isin. Shenshek replaced Sheneh in Goshen; Iterpisha succeeded Zambia in Isin. Gelanor succeeded Sthenelaus in Argos. In 1738 Silli-Adad succeeded Siniqisham in Larsa. Wazad followed Shenshek in Goshen; Ilakabkabu of Terqa took Shuprum.
In 1737 BC Silli-Adad was removed from throne of Larsa; Kudur-Mabug of Elam placed his son Warad-Sin on that throne; Elam defeated Ipiq-adad of Eshnunna; Shamshi-adad succeded his father Ila-kabkabu in Terqa; and Bujiang succeeded Xie in Xia. Seth Meribre (Danaus Armais) succeeded Sehetepkare in Thebes. The next year, 1736 BC, Urdukuga succeeded Iterpisha in Isin. In 1735 BC, Warad-Sin destroyed the wall of Kazallu and the army of Mutibal. Apil-Sin succeeded Sabium in Babylon. the Lullu defeated Ashur in Lazapatum.
In 1734 BC Yaqub Har succeeded Wazad in Goshen; Ipiq-adad took Arrapha. In 1733 BC, Sin-Magir succeeded Urdukuga in Isin ; and Sobekhotep III (Aegyptus Ramses) expelled Danaus from Thebes. Moses was born in Egypt; and Ipiq-adad took Gasur. In 1732 BC Uhna of Zalpa destroyed the Assyrian Karum at Kanesh; Inar succeeded Harpatiwa in Kanesh. In 1729 BC Ipiq-adad took Sin-abushi of Nerebtum. In 1728 BC, Dardanus founded Troy. In 1727 BC Ipiq-adad took Nerebtum, and Nowil succeeded Ashul in Josun.
In 1726 BC, Shamshi-adad defeated Unina; Rim-Sin succeeded Warad-Sin in Larsa; Ramenpahte followed Amen in Kush. In 1724 BC, animals were domesticated in Josen. In 1723 BC, Damiq-Ilishu succeeded Sin-Magir in Isin, and Danaus took Argos from Gelanor. In the next year, Erishum 2 succeeded Naram-Sin in Asshur, and Shamshi-Adad fled from Terqa to Babylon.
In 1721 BC, Ipiq-adad died and was succeded by Naram-Sin in Eshnunna. In thenext year he seized Ashnakkum , and the year following, Kakkulatum. Then in 1718 BC, Damiq-Ilishu of Isin took Nippur from Larsa. In 1717 BC, Sin-Muballit succeeded Apil-Sin in Babylon, and Corax succeeded Echyreus in Aigialea. The year after that, Naram-Sin seized Ashtabala.
In 1715 BC Shamshi-Adad returned from Babylon and took Ekallatum and Yahdun-lim succeeded Yagit-lim in Mari. In 1714 BC, Beric was king in Sweden, and Sumu-Epuh in Yamhad, and in 1713 BC, Rim-Sin of Larsa smote Babylon, Sutum, Rapiqum, and Irdanene king of Uruk, while Yahdun-lim defeated Zalpa. In 1712 BC, Rim-Sin seized Pinaratim and Nazarum; Shamshi-adad I seized the throne of Asshur from erishum, and Yahdun-lim defeated the Yaminites.
In 1711 BC, Ibniera succeeded Naram-Sin in Eshnunna, and Yahdun-Lim defeated Shamshi-Adad. In 1710 BC, Rim-Sin seized Zibnatum, Iqish-TIshpak succeeded ibniera in Eshnunna , Gold was discovered in Josen, and Yahdun-Lim subjected the Yaminites. In 1709 BC, Rim-Sin seized Bit-Shu-Sin and Uzarbara; and Yahdun-Lim destroyed the crops of Ashur.
In 1708 BC, Dannum-Tahaz succeeded Iqish-tishpak in Eshnunna; and Yahdun-Lim defeated the Yaminites at Tuttul. In 1707 BC, Rim-Sin annexed Kisurra, and destroyed Der, and Yahdun-Lim again defeated the Yaminites. In 1706 BC, Rim-Sin destroyed Uruk, and retook Nippur from Isin; Wanuna, then Piori I succeeded Ramenpahte in Kush. Pitana of Kushara took Kanesh from Warshama, and was succeeded by his son Anitta.
In 1705 BC, Anitta defeated Piyushti of Hatti and Zalpa, and in 1704 BC Sin-Muballit of Babylon defeated Rim-Sin of Larsa; Dadusha succeeded Dannum-Tahaz in Eshnunna, and Yahdun-Lim defeated Shamshi-Adad at Nagar. In 1702 BC, Rim-Sin seized an unnamed city of Damiq-Ilishu of Isin, and the Assyrians reestablished the Karum at Kanesh; in 1701 BC Sin-Muballit of Babylon captured Isin.
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- 2359 AM - 1699 Shamshi-adad of Asshur def. Yahdun-lim of Mari, 11 others
- 2360-61 AM 1698-97 - Rim-Sin of Larsa conquers Isin
Reign of Hammurabi of Babylon - 2361-2404 AM (1697-1654 BC)
Although Isin finally falls to Larsa, in that same year the famous king Hammurabi succeeds Sin-Muballit in Babylon, and soon grows to be the paramount power in Mesopotamia.
- 2362 AM - 1696 famous Law Code of Hammurabi is proclaimed. The last major law-code had been that of Lipit-Ishtar of Isin, in 2234 AM.
- c. 1694 - Ityopis II in Ethiopia
- 2367 AM - 1691 Hammurabi of Babylon seizes Uruk and Isin from Larsa; Rama of India fights Piori I of Kush
- 2369 AM - 1689 Dadusha takes Meturan
- 2370 AM - 1688 Hammurabi defeats Malgium
- 2371 AM - 1687 Hammurabi seizes Rapiqum, Shalibi
- 2372 AM - 1686 Qatna-Asshur alliance; Shamshi-adad appoints son Yasma-adad in Mari
- 2373 AM - 1685 Shamshi-adad takes Qabra
- 2374 AM - 1684 Shamshi-adad defeats Ahazum, etc.;
- 2375 AM - 1683 Shamshi-adad defeats Turukkeans; Yasma-adad k. of Mari defeats Yaminites, unifies banks of Euphrates
- 2378 AM - 1680 Ishme-dagan in Asshur (= Ham 17)
- 2388 AM - 1670 Ashur-dugul in Ashur
- 2390 AM - 1668 Hammurabi defeats Elam, Marhashi, Subartu, Gutium, Eshnunna and Malgium.
- 2391 AM - 1667 Hammurabi defeats Rim-Sin of Larsa
- 2392 AM - 1666 Hammurabi defeats Eshnunna, Subartu, Gutium, and conquers Mankisum.
- 2393 AM - 1665 Hammurabi conquers Mari, Malgium, Subartu, Ekallatum, Burunda, Zamlash.
- 2394 AM - 1664 Belubani in Ashur; Senuka in Ethiopia
- 2397 AM - 1661 Hammurabi defeats Gutium, Sutum, Turukku, and Kakmu and the land of Subartu.
- 2399 AM - 1659 Hammurabi defeats Cutha, Subartu;
Reign of Samsu-iluna of Babylon -2404-2442 AM (1654-1616 BC)
- 2404 AM (1654) Libaya in Ashur
- 2410 AM = 1648 BC - Exodus of Israelites from Egypt
- 2411 AM - 1647 Israel, led by Moses, is at Sinai, Kadesh. Bonu in Ethiopia.
- 2412 AM - 1646 Samsu-iluna of Babylon defeats the Kassites, a new Zagros entity.
- 2413 AM 1645 - Samsu-iluna defeats Emutbal, Uruk, Isin
- 2414 AM 1644 - Samsu-iluna defeats rebellion in Akkad, destroys Larsa
- 2415 AM 1643 - Samsu-Iluna defeats Sumer and Akkad
- 2416 AM 1642 - Samsu-Iluna destroys Kisurra and Sabum
- c. 1639 BC - Q. Mumazes in Ethiopia
- 2420 AM 1638 - Sharma-adad 1 in Ashur
- 2423 AM 1635 - Samsu-Iluna smites Eshnunna. Aruas, Amen Asro in Ethiopia.
- 2426 AM 1632 - Samsu-Iluna destroys Shahna, Apum, Zarhanum, Putra, and Susa.
- 2431 AM 1627 - Samsu-iluna defeats kings Iadihabum and Mutihurshan
- 2432 AM - (1626 BC) Iptar-sin in Ashur
- 2439 AM - 1619 Samsu-Iluna subdues Amorites
Reign of Abieshuh of Babylon - 2442-2470 AM (1616-1588 BC)
- 2443 AM 1615 - Bazaya in Ashur
- 2445 AM - 1613 Abieshuh of Babylon defeats the Kassites
- 2449 AM 1609 - Moses of Israel seizes Heshbon, Bashan.
- 2450-2456 AM - 1608-1602 BC Joshua begins Israelite conquest of Canaan
- 2451 AM (1607 BC) - Abieshuh seizes Adnatum;
- c. 1605 BC - Ori II in Eth.
- 2469 AM 1589 - Abieshuh defeats Eshnunna
Reign of Ammi-Ditana of Babylon - 2470-2508 AM (1588-1551 BC)
- 2470 AM (1588 BC) Lulaya in Ashur
- 2476 AM (1582 BC) Shu-ninua in Ashur
- c. 1575 BC - Piori II in Eth.
- 2490 AM (1568 BC) 2 Sharma-adad in Ashur
- 2493 AM (1565 BC) 3 Erishum in Ashur
- 2494 AM = 1564 BC death of Joshua; Kenaz judge in Israel (Philo)
- c. 1560 BC - Amenemhat I in Eth.
- 2505 AM (1553) - 2 Shamshi-adad in Ashur
- 2507 AM (1551 BC) - Ammi-Ditana of Babylon destroys wall of Der.
Reign of Ammi-Saduqa of Babylon - 2508-2528 AM (1551-1530 BC)
- 2511 AM (1547 BC) 2 Ishme-dagan in Ashur
- 2527 AM (1531 BC) 3 Shamshi-adad in Ashur
Reign of Samsu-Ditana of Babylon - 2528-2559 AM (1530-1499 BC)
- c. 1520 BC - Tsawi in Ethiopia.
- 2542 AM (1516 BC) Ashur-nirari 1 in Ashur
- 2551 AM (1507 BC) Zebul judge in Israel (Philo)
- c. 1505 BC - Aktisanis in Eth.
- 2559 AM (1499 BC) - Hittite king Mursili I sacks Babylon; beginning of Kassite rule in Babylon, renamed Karanduniash.
After sack of Babylon
- 2559 AM (1499 BC) Agum (Kassite) duke in Babylon / Karanduash
- c. 1495 BC - Mandes in Eth.
- 2568 AM (1490 BC) Puzur-assur 3 in Ashur
- c. 1478 BC - Protawos in Eth.
- 2592 AM (1466 BC) Enlil-nasir 1 in Assyria
- 2600 AM (1458 BC) - Cushan-Rishathaim of Aram subjects Israel
- 2600 AM (1458 BC) Ulamburiash in Karanduash
- 2604 AM (1454 BC) Nur-ili in Asshur
- 2608 AM (1450 BC) - Othniel of Israel defeats Aram
- c. 1445 BC - Amoy in Eth.
- 2616 AM (1442 BC) Ashur-rabi 1 in Asshur
- c. 1424 BC - Konsi Hindawi in Eth.
- 2635 AM (1423 BC) Enlil-nasir 2 in Assyria
- c. 1419 BC - Bonu II in Eth.
- 2641 AM (1417 BC) Ashur-nirari II in Assyria; Sebe III Kefe in Eth.
- 2648 AM (1410 BC) Ashur-bel-nisheshu in Assyria; Eglon of Moab subjects Israel
- 2656 AM (1402 BC) Ashur-rem-nisheshu in Assyria; Djagons in Eth.
- 2664 AM (1394 BC) Ashur-nadin-ahhe II in Assyria
- 2666 AM (1392 BC) - Ehud of Israel defeats Moab
Ehud and Shamgar judge in Israel; Period of Amarna letters
- 2674 AM (1384 BC) Eriba-adad I in Assyria
- c. 1382 BC - Senuka II in Eth.
- 2683 AM (1375 BC) Kadashman-enlil 1 in Karanduash
- c. 1372 BC - Angabo I in Eth.
- 2699 AM (1359 BC) Burnaburiash 2 in Karanduash
- 2700 AM (1358 BC) Ashur-uballit I in Assyria
- 2707 AM (1351 BC) Amarna letter EA 17
- 2722 AM (1336 B Tutankhamen in Egypt
- 2725 AM (1333 BC) Kadashman-harbe, Nazi-bugu in Karanduash; *2726 AM (1332 BC) Ashur-uballit appoints Kurigalzu II in Karanduash
- 2731 AM (1327 BC) Ay in Egypt
- 2735 AM (1323 BC) Enlil-nirani in Assyria; defeats Kurigalzu; Horemheb in Egypt.
- 2736 AM (1322 BC) Arnuwanda II, Mursili II in Hatti. Miamur, Helena in Eth.
- 2744 AM (1314 BC) - Arik-den-ili in Assyria
- 2746 AM (1312 BC) - Jabin of Hazor subjects Israel
- c. 1311 BC - Zagdur I in Eth.
- 2751 AM (1307 BC) Nazi-marutash in Karanduash
- 2756 AM (1302 BC) - Adad-nirari I in Assyria
- 2763 AM (1295 BC) Ramses I in Egypt; Muwatalli II in Hatti
- 2764 AM (1294 BC) Seti I in Egypt
- 2766 AM (1292 BC) - Deborah and Barak of Israel defeat Hazor
- 2777 AM (1281 BC) Adad-nirari defeats Nazi-marutash. Kadashman-turgu in Karanduash
- 2780 AM (1278 BC) Battle of Kadesh
- c. 1271 BC - Herhator II in Eth.
- 2788 AM (1270 BC) Shalmaneser I in Assyria
- 2789 AM (1269 BC) Hattushili III in Hatti
- 2794 AM (1264 BC) Kadashman-enlil II in Karanduash; Shalmaneser sacks Mitanni.
- 2803 AM (1255 BC) Kudur-enlil in Karanduash
- 2806 AM (1252 BC) - Midian subjects Israel
- 2813 AM (1245 BC) Shagarakti-shuriash in Karanduash
- 2813 AM (1245 BC) - Gideon of Israel defeats Midian
- 2817 AM (1241 BC) - Tukulti-ninurta I in Assyria; Tudhaliya IV in Hatti; Herhator III in Eth.
- c. 1240 BC - Akate in Eth.
- 2826 AM (1232 BC) Kashtiliash 4 in Karanduash
- 2833 AM (1225 BC) Tukulti-ninurta defeats Karanduash; places Enlil-nadin-shum viceroy in Karanduash (Tuk 19)
- 2834 AM (1224 BC) Kadashman-harbe 2, viceroy in Karanduash
- 2836 AM (1222 BC) Adad-shum-idina viceroy in Karanduash
- c. 1220 - Titon Satio in Eth.
- 2842 AM (1216 BC) Adad-shum-usur in Karanduash; Merenptah in Egypt
- c. 1210 BC - Hermantu, Amenemhet II in Eth.
- 2849 AM (1209 BC) Arnuwanda 3 in Hatti
- 2851 AM (1207 BC) - Seti II in Egypt; Supiluliuma II in Hatti
- 2853 AM (1205 BC) - Ashur-nadin-apli in Assyria; King Abimilech of Israel; Konsab I in Eth.
- 2856 AM (1202 BC) - Tola judge in Israel
- 2857 AM (1201 BC) - Ashur-nirari III in Assyria
- c. 1200 BC - Sannib in Eth.
- 2862 AM (1196 BC) Enlil-kudurri-usur in Assyria, defeats Karanduash;
- c. 1195 BC - Senuka III in Eth.
- 2866 AM (1192 BC) - Ramses III in Egypt
- 2867 AM (1191 BC) - Ninurta-apal-ekur in Assyria
- c. 1190 BC - Angabo II in Eth.
- 2872 AM (1186 BC) - Meli-shipak in Karanduash
- 2873 AM (1185 BC) - Trojan war; downfall of Hatti
- 2879 AM (1179 BC) - Jair judge in Israel;
- 2880 AM (1178 BC) - Ashur-dan I in Assyria
- 2887 AM (1171 BC) - Marduk-apla-idina in Karanduash
- 2897 AM (1161 BC) - Ramses IV in Egypt
- 2900 AM (1158 BC) - Zababa-shum-idina in Karanduash
- 2901 AM (1157 BC) - Enlil-nadin-ahe in Karanduash
- 2901 AM (1157 BC) - Ammonites, Philistines subject Israel
- 2903 AM (1155 BC) - Kassites overthrown by Shutruk-Nahunte of Elam
- 2904 AM (1154 BC) - Ramses 5 in Egypt; Marduk-kabit-ahesu in Babylon
- 2907 AM (1151 BC) - Ramses 6 in Egypt
- c. 1150 BC - Amen Astate in Eth.
- 2914 AM (1144 BC) - Ramses 7 in Egypt
- 2918 AM (1140 BC) - Iti-Marduk-Belatu in Babylon
- 2919 AM (1139 BC) - Jepthah of Israel defeats Ammonites
- 2921 AM (1137 BC) - Ramses 8, 9 in Egypt
- 2925 AM (1133 BC) - Ibzan of Israel; Ninurta-tukulti-asshur, Muttakil-Nusku in Assyria
- 2926 AM (1132 BC) - Ashur-resh-ishi in Assyria; Ninurta-nadin-shumi in Babylon
- 2932 AM (1126 BC) - Nebuchadnezzar I in Babylon
- 2933 AM (1125 BC) - Elon of Israel
- c. 1120 BC - Herhor in Eth.
- 2939 AM (1119 BC) - Ramses 10 in Egypt
- 2942 AM (1116 BC) - Ramses 11 in Egypt
- 2943 AM (1115 BC) - Abdon of Israel
- 2944 AM (1114 BC) - Tiglath-Pileser I in Assyria
- 2951 AM (1107 BC) - Philistines subject Israel under Samson
- 2954 AM (1104 BC) - Enlil-nadin-apli in Babylon; Wiyankihi in Eth.
- 2958 AM (1100 BC) - Marduk-nadin-ahhe in Babylon
- c. 1095 BC - Pinotsem I in Eth.
- 2971 AM (1087 BC) - Israel under Eli, still trib. to Philistines
- 2976 AM (1082 BC) - Marduk-shapik-zeri in Babylon
- c. 1078 BC - Pinotsem II in Eth.
- 2983 AM (1075 BC) - Ashared-apil-ekur in Assyria
- 2985 AM (1073 BC) - Ashur-bel-kala in Assyria
- 2996 AM (1068 BC) - Philistines capture Ark
- 2997 AM (1067 BC) - Samuel defeats Philistines; Ark moves to Kiryat
- 2993 AM (1065 BC) - Adad-apla-iddina in Babylon
- 3003 AM (1055 BC) - Eriba-adad 2 in Assyria
- 3005 AM (1053 BC) - Shamshi-adad 4 in Assyria
- 3009 AM (1049 BC) - Ashurnasirpal I in Assyria
- 3011 AM (1047 BC) - King Saul of Israel; Marduk-ahhe-eriba in Babylon
- 3012 AM (1046 BC) - Marduk-zer-... in Babylon
- c. 1037 BC - Massaherta in Eth.
- 3024 AM (1034 BC) - Nabu-shum-libur in Babylon
- 3028 AM (1030 BC) - Shalmaneser II in Babylon
- 3032 AM (1026 BC) - Sunbar-shipak in Babylon
- c. 1021 BC - Ramenkopern in Eth.
- 3040 AM (1018 BC) - Ashur-nirari 4 in Assyria
- 3046 AM (1012 BC) - Ashur-rabi II in Assyria
- 3049 AM (1009 BC) - Osorkhon in Egypt
- 3050 AM (1008 BC - Ea-mukin-zeri in Babylon
- 3051 AM (1007 BC) - David king in Hebron; Kassu-nadin-ahhe in Babylon; Pinotsem III in Eth.
- 3053 AM (1005 BC) - Eulma-shakin-shumi in Babylon
- 3058 AM (1000 BC) - David king in Jerusalem; Sabi IV in Eth.
- c. 990 BC - Twasaya Dews in Eth.
- 3070 AM (988 BC) - Ninurta-kudurri-usur 1 in Babylon
- 3073 AM (985 BC) - Siriki-shuqamuna in Babylon
- 3074 AM (984 BC) - Mar-biti-apla-usur in Babylon
- 3079 AM (979 BC) - Nabu-mukin-apli in Babylon
- c. 977 BC - Q. Makeda in Eth.
- 3087 AM (971 BC) - Ashur-resh-ishi II in Assyria
- 3091 AM (967 BC) - Solomon of Israel
- 3092 AM (966 BC) - Tiglath-pileser II in Assyria
- 3094 AM (964 BC) - Temple built
- 3099 AM (959 BC) - Orsokhon I in Egypt
- c. 946 BC - Minelik I in Eth.
- 3115 AM (943 BC) - Nimurta-kudurri-usur 2 in Babylon
- 3116 AM (942 BC) - Mar-biti-ahhe-idin in Babylon
- 3124 AM (934 BC) - Ashur-dan II in Assyria
- 3130 AM (928 BC) - Rehoboam, Jeroboam
- 3134 AM (924 BC) - Sheshank II in Egypt
- 3136 AM (922 BC) - Takelot I in Egypt
- c. 3144 AM (c. 914 BC) - Shamash-mudammiq in Babylon
- 3147 AM (911 BC - Adad-Nirari II in Assyria
- 3147 AM (911 BC) - Abijam in Judah
- 3149 AM (909 BC) - Asa in Judah; Osorkhon II in Egypt
- 3150 AM (908 BC) - Nadab in Israel
- 3151 AM (907 BC) - Baasha in Israel
- 3159 AM (899 BC) - Nabu-shum-ukin in Babylon
- 3168 AM (890 BC) - Tikulti-Ninurta II in Assyria
- 3171 AM (887 BC) - Nabu-apla-iddina in Babylon
- 3174 AM (884 BC) - Elah in Israel
- 3175 AM (883 BC) - Zimri; Tibni vs. Omri in Israel. Ashurnasirpal II in Assyria.
- 3179 AM (879 BC) - Omri alone in Israel
- 3186 AM (872 BC) - Ahab in Israel
- 3189 AM (869 BC) - Jehoshaphat in Judah
- 3193 AM (865 BC) - Takelot II in Egypt
- 3200 AM (858 BC) - Shalmaneser 3 in Assyria
- 3204 AM (854 BC) - Marduk-zakir-shumi I in Babylon
- 3205 AM (853 BC) - Ahab fights Shalmaneser 3 of Assyria, dies fighting Ben-Hadad of Aram and is succeeded by Ahaziah in Israel
- 3206 AM (852 BC) - Joram in Israel
- 3210 AM (848 BC) - Jehoram in Judah
- 3217 AM (841 BC) - Ahaziah, Athaliah in Judah; Jehu in Israel, pays tribute to Shalmaneser 3
- 3223 AM (835 BC) - Joash in Judah
- 3235 AM (823 BC) - Shamshi-adad 5 in Assyria
- 3240 AM (818 BC) - Marduk-balassu-iqbi in Babylon
- 3244 AM (814 BC) - Joahaz in Israel
- 3246 AM (812 BC) - Baba-ah-idina in Babylon
- 3248 AM (810 BC) - Adad-nerari III in Assyria
- 3258 AM (800 BC) - Joash in Israel (not the same); Sheshank 4 in Egypt
- 3259 AM (799 BC) - Amaziah in Judah
- 3273 AM (785 BC) - Jeroboam 2 in Israel
- 3276 AM (782 BC) - Shalmaneser 4 in Assyria; Sheshank 5 in Egypt
- 3286 AM (772 BC) - Ashur-dan 3 in Assyria
- 3287 AM (771 BC) - Azariah in Judah
- 3298 AM (760 BC) - Nabu-shum-ishkun in Babylon
- 3310 AM (748 BC) - Zechariah in Israel
- 3311 AM (747 BC) - Shallum, Menahem in Israel; Nabonassar in Babylon
- 3313 AM (745 BC) - Tiglath-pileser III in Assyria
- 3320 AM (738 BC) - Menahem pays tribute to Tiglath-Pilesar 3 of Assyria; Pekahiah succeeds him in Israel
- 3321 AM (737 BC) - Pekah in Israel
- 3322 AM (736 BC) - Jotham in Judah
- 3323 AM (735 BC) - Ahaz in Judah
- 3325 AM (733 BC) - Nabu-nadin-zeri in Babylon
- 3326 AM (732 BC) - Hoshea in Israel
- 3327 AM (731 BC) - Nabu-mukin-zeri in Babylon
- 3332 AM (726 BC) - Shalmaneser 5 in Assyria; Ululayu in Babylon
- 3337 AM (721 BC) - Sargon of Assyria defeats Israel, takes Samaria