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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Cluster One: Understanding Multicultural Education

Aldridge, J.; Calhoun, C. & Aman, R. (2000). 15 Misconceptions about Multicultural Education. Focus on Elementary, Spring 2000, Vol.12, #3. Retrieved February 3, 2007 from [1]

Abstract

The article claims that while many elementary educators support multicultural development and genuinely try to incorporate diverse cultural issues into the curriculum, some widespread misconceptions hinder the process. They list 15 common misconceptions that should be addressed, namely,

  1. People from the same nation or geographic region, or those who speak the same language, share a common culture.
  2. Families from the same culture share the same values.
  3. Children's books about another culture are usually authentic.
  4. Multicultural education just includes ethnic or racial issues.
  5. The tour and detour approaches – "tourist-multiculturalism" - are appropriate for teaching multicultural education.
  6. Multicultural education should be taught as a separate subject.
  7. Multicultural education is an accepted part of the curriculum.
  8. Multiculturalism is divisive.
  9. In predominantly monocultural or bicultural societies, there is no need to study other cultures.
  10. Multicultural education should be reserved for older children who are less egocentric or ethnocentric.
  11. When multicultural education is implemented, the commonality is lost.
  12. We do not need multicultural education because America already acknowledges its cultural diversity.
  13. Historical accuracy suffers in multicultural education.
  14. Most people identify with only one culture.
  15. There are not enough resources available about multicultural education.

Gordon, M.; Cantwell, R; & Moore, P. (1998). Developing understanding: international student explanations of how they learn. Paper presented at the 1998 Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Adelaide; December, 1998. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [2]

Abstract

What do terms such as "learning" and "understanding" mean for international undergraduate students? Research (Marton, Dall'Alba and Beaty, 1993; Purdie, Hattie and Douglas, 1996) suggests that there is a link between what students believe terms such as "learning" and "understanding" mean and the strategies they employ to undertake specific tasks.

This paper outlines research into one aspect of a three year longitudinal study of international students studying at an Australian university. Through student interviews which have been carried out over a three year period it is possible to compare student conceptions of the learning process on arrival in Australia and their understanding of that process almost three years later.

While students in this study indicated their awareness of changed situational factors in the learning environment from a university preparatory program to university undergraduate study, it did not necessarily follow that for all students there would be an adjustment in how they approached their learning. Reference is made to learning theories and their emphasis on personological and situational factors in explaining how students approach the learning task.

Kim, K. & Bonk, C. (2002). Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Online Collaboration. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (JCMC) 8 (1). Retrieved January 29, 2007 from [3]

Abstract

This study investigated two interconnected conferences formed by students and instructors from two different cultures—Finland and the United States—to discuss case situations or problems in school observations,in order to examine cross-cultural differences in online collaborative behaviors among undergraduate preservice teachers. A conference for Korean students in the following semester was added and analyzed for more diverse cross-cultural comparisons. In terms of the first part of this study, computer log data indicated that there were more cross-cultural postings in the Finnish conference by U.S. students than Finnish visitors within the U.S. conference. In addition, student postings made up nearly 80 percent of these discussions. Qualitative content analyses of computer transcripts were conducted to compare their collaborative behaviors with the conferences. Results revealed some cross-cultural differences in the participants' online collaborative behaviors. Korean students were more social and contextually driven online, Finnish students were more group-focused as well as reflective and, at times, theoretically driven, and U.S. students more action-oriented and pragmatic in seeking results or giving solutions. The U.S. and Finnish students spent much time sharing knowledge and resources and also providing cross-cultural feedback. Findings indicate that instructors who facilitate online collaboration among multicultural students need to be aware of cultural differences in the learners� online collaborative behaviors, and such differences need to be taken into account to foster online collaboration among culturally diverse learners. Some data from post-collaboration questionnaires, student interviews, and videoconferencing further informed these findings.

Leask, B. (2001). Internationalisation: Changing contexts and their implications for teaching, learning and assessment. In L. Richardson and J. Lidstone (Eds), Flexible Learning for a Flexible Society, 389-401. Proceedings of ASET-HERDSA 2000 Conference, Toowoomba, Qld, 2-5 July 2000. Retrieved January 29, 2007 from [4]

Abstract

Changes in government policies and the social and economic context within which universities operate has resulted in increasing pressure for them to attract more international students and to internationalise their curricula. This, in turn, has put pressure on staff development units to develop strategies to assist staff to support student learning and achieve institutional goals. This paper describes some of the professional development programs and resources developed at the University of South Australia to support the internationalisation of teaching and learning.

The first section describes resources that have been developed to assist staff to internationalise their courses. These include guidelines on structural options and pathways for course design and strategies for broadening the scope of the subject to include international content and contact. It also includes a description of a range of teaching and learning processes developed to assist all students to develop international perspectives; processes which value and include the contributions of international students.

The second section of the paper looks specifically at qualitative differences in the development of international perspectives in graduates. It describes a range of assessment strategies designed to assist students to focus their energies appropriately across a course and to develop international perspectives as professionals and citizens.

This approach is designed to maximise the reciprocal benefit and value of internationalisation in the short term and, ultimately, to embed internationalisation into the culture of the institution.

Morse, K. (2003). Does one size fit all? Exploring asynchronous learning in a multicultural environment. JALN Volume 7, Issue 1. Retrieved January 30, 2007 from [5]

Abstract

Computer-mediated classrooms coupled with heightened emphasis on removing geographic limitations have led to growing dependence on asynchronous learning networks as a delivery medium. An increasingly robust body of literature suggests both positive and negative implications of knowledge delivery using this medium. However, much less is known about the implications of this delivery method relative to the cultural differences which exist in a geographically limitless environment. Exploratory research from a graduate level course was used to ascertain some of the basic cross cultural issues which may be relevant in this environment. Using cultural context as a separator, twenty four participants evenly split between low context participants and high context participants were polled regarding their experience in the course. The poll addressed a number of key issues finding increasing frequency in the asynchronous learning network literature. Results confirm some of the published benefits as touted in the literature, but identify an additional set of issues for further research and evaluation.

Cluster Two: Multicultural Education Best Practices

Chickering, A. & Ehrmann, S., Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever. Retrieved February 1, 2007, from [6]

Abstract

This article discusses some of the most cost-effective and appropriate ways to use computers, video, and telecommunications technologies to advance the authors’ Seven Principles.

  1. Good Practice Encourages Contacts Between Students and Faculty
  2. Good Practice Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students
  3. Good Practice Uses Active Learning Techniques
  4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback
  5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task
  6. Good Practice Communicates High Expectations
  7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning

Cifuentes, L. & Murphy, K. (2000). Cultural Connections: A Model for Eliminating Boundaries and Crossing Borders. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, Volume 1, Number 1. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [7]

Abstract

Cultural Connections is a model for implementing constructivist, intercultural distance learning partnerships. This article describes research and development on cultural connections via telecommunications with-- a middle school partnership within Texas, a fourth-grade connection between Texas and Mexico, and a connection between university students in Texas and Taiwan. In these three partnerships, students expanded their worldviews. The partnerships were designed to facilitate world citizenship for all participants. Respect for differences and similarities among learners fundamentally infused the activities. In the three Cultural Connections partnerships, bonds were established and strengthened among members of intercultural learning communities through curricular activities facilitated by telecommunications.

Dunn, B. & Adkins, M., The Multicultural Classroom: Teaching Refugee and Immigrant Children. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [8]

Abstract

The authors state that even if a teacher had a roomful of all "white", English-speaking students born in the United States, that teacher would still have a multicultural class. They discuss some of the cultural adjustment issues that limited English speaking children often bring to the classroom, some of the choices teachers have to make when managing the classroom, and tips on how to promote effective and efficient learning.

Dyjur, P. (n.d.). Inclusive Practices in Instructional Design. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [9]

Abstract

This paper explores inclusive practices in instructional design and discusses why inclusive design is important for marginalized groups, and how it benefits all learners. Finally, it notes some strategies that instructional designers and other educators can use to make the learning environment more inclusive.

Gaudelli, W. (2006), Convergence of Technology and Diversity: Experiences of Two Beginning Teachers in Web-Based Distance Learning for Global/Multicultural Education. Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [10]

Abstract

This study explores the exegesis of two beginning teachers in a teacher preparation and development, Web-based distance learning course in global/multicultural pedagogy; it examines their experiences around the issue of convergence, suggesting generative themes that emerge from their interpretation of the course. The author uses the experiences of these beginning teachers to raise questions for further inquiry about the convergence of distance learning and global/multicultural learning in teacher education.

Jones, L. (2005). Maintaining the curricular philosophies of a multicutural education course: From face-to-face to eLearning environments. AACE Journal, 13(1), 91-99. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from [11]

Abstract

This article discusses the issues surrounding the transfer of a traditional face-to-face course to an eLearning environment, and how this significant shift in learning environments translates into maintaining the quality of learning objectives. While recognizing and understanding the strengths and weaknesses of our teaching styles and curricular philosophies, educators can make informed decisions about what will work within our online courses.

Hammer, R., & Kellner, D. (2001). Multimedia pedagogy and multicultural education for the new millennium. Reading Online, 4(10). Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [12]

Abstract

In this article, the authors examine the Shoah Project, which uses multimedia to document the experiences of Holocaust survivors, and demonstrate the way it makes historical events vivid and compelling in the contemporary moment. They also argue that effective use of multimedia in the teaching of history, religion, and multiculturalism requires historical contextualization, attention to media literacy skills, and an engaging classroom presentation.

Kassop, M. (2003). Ten Ways Online Education Matches, or Surpasses, Face-to-Face Learning. The Technology Source, May/June 2003. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [13]

Abstract

This paper addresses the questions: Can online courses match traditional face-to-face (F2F) courses in academic quality and rigor? Can online courses achieve the same learning objectives as F2F courses? Can students learn as much and as well online as they do in F2F courses? It claims that the answer to these questions a resounding "yes." Furthermore, it identifies ten areas in which the author believes online courses may actually surpass traditional F2F classes, namely,

  1. Student-centered learning
  2. Writing intensity
  3. Highly interactive discussions
  4. Geared to lifelong learning
  5. Enriched course materials
  6. On-demand interaction and support services
  7. Immediate feedback
  8. Flexibility
  9. An intimate community of learners
  10. Faculty development and rejuvenation

McLoughlin, C. (1999). Culturally inclusive learning on the web. In K. Martin, N. Stanley and N. Davison (Eds), Teaching in the Disciplines/ Learning in Context, 272-277. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Teaching Learning Forum, The University of Western Australia, February 1999. Perth: UWA. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [14]

Abstract

In tertiary contexts, Web-based instruction may be tailored to the needs of a particular cultural group, and recognise the specific learning needs, preferences and styles of learners. At a time when open learning markets are very competitive, many WWW sites are developed with an international audience in mind. The internationalisation of education has led to the development of two distinct types of WWW sites, (i) those made for one particular context and culture, but visited by a global audience, and (ii) those made specifically for cross-cultural participation. An investigation of these sites reveals many different learning features and instructional design paradigms. Sites aiming for cross cultural participation and seeking a bridge to multiculturalism need to take certain design features into consideration, and utilise culturally appropriate forms of instructional design (ID). A critique of current ID approaches shows that many lack the depth and scope to enable them to provide culturally inclusive learning, and it is that proposed that cultural contextualisation is important in the design of learning. At the same time, WWW sites that aim for cultural portability of courseware need to adopt cross-cultural design features that ensure access by culturally diverse learners. The contrasting orientations and pedagogic features of culture-specific as opposed to cross-cultural sites are discussed and the implications for design are considered.

McLoughlin, C. (2001). Crossing boundaries: Curriculum and teaching implications of culturally inclusive online learning. AARE 2001 Conference. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [15]

Abstract

In tertiary contexts, Web-based instruction may be tailored to the needs of a particular cultural group, and recognise the specific learning needs, preferences and styles of learners. At a time when open learning markets are very competitive, many WWW sites are developed with an international audience in mind. The internationalisation of education has led to the development of two distinct types of WWW sites, (i) those made for one particular context and culture, but visited by a global audience, and (ii) those made specifically for cross-cultural participation. An investigation of these sites reveals many different learning features and instructional design paradigms. Sites aiming for cross cultural participation and seeking a bridge to multiculturalism need to take certain design features into consideration, and utilise culturally appropriate forms of instructional design (ID). A critique of current ID approaches shows that many lack the depth and scope to enable them to provide culturally inclusive learning, and it is that proposed that cultural contextualisation is important in the design of learning. At the same time, WWW sites that aim for cultural portability of courseware need to adopt cross-cultural design features that ensure access by culturally diverse learners. This paper offers a framework for culturally inclusive teaching and curriculum that can be applied to online environments. The term ‘inclusive curriculum’ as used in this paper refers to curriculum content, as well as the processes of planning for appropriate teaching, learning and assessment practices. Inclusivity in Web-based learning is concerned with facilitating the best educational outcomes for all students, regardless of characteristics such as ethnicity, language and cultural background.

Merryfield, M. (2003). Like a veil: Cross-cultural experiential learning online. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 3(2), 146-171. Retrieved January 30, 2007 from [16]

Abstract

In this article the author reports on specific instances of cross-cultural learning that she has found to be associated with her use of online technologies. She addresses two basic questions about online learning:

  1. How does the facelessness of threaded discussions, chats, and online assignments affect teachers’ learning and teaching about other cultures? About prejudice, privilege, and multiple perspectives?
  2. How can specific online tools or strategies contribute to teachers’ development of world-mindedness?

Sleeter, C. & Tettagah, S. (2002). Technology as a Tool in Multicultural Education. Multicultural Education, Winter 2002. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [17]

Abstract

The article explores applications of multimedia, interactive, Internet, and web-based electronic tools to multicultural teaching. It introduces how technology can be used as a tool to integrate principles and practices of multicultural education through the Internet, World Wide Web, and multimedia in education.

BIBLIOGRAPHY (go to the end of the Final Paper page)

ARTICLES (go to the end of the Final Paper page)

Aldridge, J.; Calhoun, C. & Aman, R. (2000). 15 Misconceptions about Multicultural Education. Focus on Elementary, Spring 2000, Vol.12, #3. Retrieved February 3, 2007 from [18]

Chickering, A. & Ehrmann, S., (n.d.). Implementing the Seven Principles: Technology as Lever. Retrieved February 1, 2007, from [19]

Cifuentes, L. & Murphy, K. (2000). Cultural Connections: A Model for Eliminating Boundaries and Crossing Borders. Quarterly Review of Distance Education, Volume 1, Number 1. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [20]

Dunn, B. & Adkins, M., (n.d.). The Multicultural Classroom: Teaching Refugee and Immigrant Children. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [21]

Dyjur, P. (n.d.). Inclusive Practices in Instructional Design. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [22]

Edelstein, S. & Edwards, J. (2002). If you build it, they will come: building learning communities through threaded discussions. Retrieved October 29, 2006, from [23]

Gaudelli, W. (2006), Convergence of Technology and Diversity: Experiences of Two Beginning Teachers in Web-Based Distance Learning for Global/Multicultural Education. Teacher Education Quarterly, Winter 2006. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [24]

Gordon, M.; Cantwell, R; & Moore, P. (1998). Developing understanding: international student explanations of how they learn. Paper presented at the 1998 Australian Association for Research in Education Conference, Adelaide; December, 1998. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [25]

Hammer, R., & Kellner, D. (2001). Multimedia pedagogy and multicultural education for the new millennium. Reading Online, 4(10). Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [26]

Jones, L. (2005). Maintaining the curricular philosophies of a multicutural education course: From face-to-face to eLearning environments. AACE Journal, 13(1), 91-99. Retrieved February 1, 2007 from [27]

Kassop, M. (2003). Ten Ways Online Education Matches, or Surpasses, Face-to-Face Learning. The Technology Source, May/June 2003. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [28]

Kim, K. & Bonk, C. (2002). Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Online Collaboration. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication (JCMC) 8 (1). Retrieved January 29, 2007 from [29]

Leask, B. (2001). Internationalisation: Changing contexts and their implications for teaching, learning and assessment. In L. Richardson and J. Lidstone (Eds), Flexible Learning for a Flexible Society, 389-401. Proceedings of ASET-HERDSA 2000 Conference, Toowoomba, Qld, 2-5 July 2000. Retrieved January 29, 2007 from [30]

Lynn, J. (2000). Speak English? - Managing Employees with English as a Second Language. Entrepeneur, April 2000. Retrieved February 11, 2007 from [31]

McLoughlin, C. (1999). Culturally inclusive learning on the web. In K. Martin, N. Stanley and N. Davison (Eds), Teaching in the Disciplines/ Learning in Context, 272-277. Proceedings of the 8th Annual Teaching Learning Forum, The University of Western Australia, February 1999. Perth: UWA. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [32]

McLoughlin, C. (2001). Crossing boundaries: Curriculum and teaching implications of culturally inclusive online learning. AARE 2001 Conference. Retrieved January 31, 2007 from [33]

Merryfield, M. (2003). Like a veil: Cross-cultural experiential learning online. Contemporary Issues in Technology and Teacher Education, 3(2), 146-171. Retrieved January 30, 2007 from [34]

Morse, K. (2003). Does one size fit all? Exploring asynchronous learning in a multicultural environment. JALN Volume 7, Issue 1. Retrieved January 30, 2007 from [35]

Sleeter, C. & Tettagah, S. (2002). Technology as a Tool in Multicultural Education. Multicultural Education, Winter 2002. Retrieved February 2, 2007, from [36]

OTHER ONLINE RESOURCES

Diversity in Higher Education. The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University. Located at [37]

DiversityWeb: An Interactive Resource Hub for Higher Education. Located at [38]

Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education. Located at [39]

Global Online Learning. A host of articles on topics such as: Learners and Learner Perspectives, Global Distance Learning, Cross-Cultural/multicultural Issues, eLearning for Developing Countries. Located at [40]

Multicultural Education: Teaching and Learning section features some online initiatives. Located at [41]

The Association of American Colleges and Universities: Diversity. Located at [42]

Worldwide Multicultural Research. Look under the Selected Publications, Papers, & Presentations section. Located at [43]

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