| Solar System Scratchpad|
Mare Boreum Quadrangle
- Planum Boreum - Plain that encompasses most of the northern Martian polar ice cap.
- Rupes Tenuis - Irregular scarp in the north polar ice cap that divides Planum Boreum from Vastitas Borealis. During spring, the seasonal carbon dioxide layer is covered by water frost. At certain times, winds remove the the millimetre-thick top layer of frozen water, revealing the carbon dioxide ice below.
- Chasma Boreale - One of the most prominent features in the northern ice cap. A large northern canyon as long as the Grand Canyon, but deeper and wider. Cuts from one edge of the ice cap to about halfway through, a little below the center.
- Vastitas Borealis - The largest lowland region of Mars, it encircles the Planum Boreum and the northern ice cap. Landing site of the Phoenix lander.
- North Polar Basin - Large basin that covers 40% of the planet Mars. It would represent by far the largest impact basin known in the solar system. Its southern round edges is obscured by volcanic activity, including those that created the Tharsis Bulge.
Mare Acidalium Quadrangle
- Mare Acidalium Quadrangle - Quadrangle on Mars. Contains several radioactive locations. Site of Sydonia region.
- Acidalia Planitia (Apr) - Plain between Tharsis, Valles Marineras, and Arabia Terra. Contains famous Sydonia site. Mud volcanoes were possibly found here by Mars Odyssey.
Ismenius Lacus Quadrangle
- Lyot Crater (May) - Giant impact crater that is the deepest point on Mars' northern hemisphere. MRO found 20 winding valleys that were formed by water over a site dated 1 billion years ago. There are currently dust covered glaciers near the site.
- Marte Valles (Feb) - Martian valley in the Amazonis Quadrangle containing a streamlined "island". It is the site of the first columnar jointings found outside of Earth where water cooled down lava.
- Tharsis Plateau - Great volcanic region of Mars. It may have been responsible for heating the area around Valles Marineras which caused it to collapse and form.
Lunae Palus Quadrangle
Oxia Palus Quadrangle
- Shalbatana Vallis - Valley on Mars. The first conclusive evidence of a shoreline was discovered here by the MRO.
- Aram Chaos (Mar) - A large eroded crater with evidence of once being a lake on the eastern edge of Valles Marineris near the equator. Mars Express found ferric oxides here. Site similar to the Opportunity landing site.
- Vernal Crater (Feb) - Crater near Arabia Terra in Oxia Palus quadrangle that is the possible site of ancient hot springs detected by the MRO.
- Arabia Terra (Feb) - A large upland region in the north of Mars that is heavily cratered and deeply eroded, one of the oldest places on Mars. MRO found evidence for ancient hot springs in Vernal Crater near its edge.
Syrtis Major Quadrangle
- Athabasca Valles - An equitorial valley on Mars. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter found that its gullies had been active only a couple million years ago, pointing to warmer conditions.
- Gale Crater - Destination for the Curiosity rover, located at the border of the Southern Highlands of Mars and the Northern Lowlands. It may have been a lake in the past. The rover will search for signs of present or past microbes in the surface. Central peak is higher than any mountain in the continental United States. The crater is bisected by a grand canyon like feature where water may have flowed. Landing site contains material that has washed down from the crater's rim.
Phoenicis Lacus Quadrangle
- Hebes Chasma - Connected to Valles Marineras. It has no drainage areas so water could not have flown out from it. A model of it was created and filled with water to test theories on how Mars valleys were created.
Margaritifer Sinus Quadrangle
- Meridiani Planum - The area on Mars that Opportunity is exploring. It contains Hematite which may be indicative of past hot springs or water.
- Endurance Crater - A crater visited by the Opportunity Rover during its first year for about six months. It is similar to the larger Victoria Crater it would later visit.
- Purgatory Dune - A sand trap where the Opportunity Rover was stuck for six weeks early in its mission.
- Victoria Crater - Half mile wide crater explored by Opportunity between 2006 and 2008. Contains many "bays" named after landmarks Magellan had seen and dunes. Imaged from space after the rover left and it is believed the rover's tracks can be seen and that it was one of the most magnificent images taken from Mars.
- Duck Bay - An area of Victoria Crater the Opportunity Rover spent considerable time in. It contains exposed scalloped rocks.
- Block Island - A large meteoroid discovered on Mars by the Opportunity Rover. Analysis of it shows that Mars once had a thicker atmosphere.
- Endeavour Crater - Current location for the rover Opportunity. Opportunity has seen its rim a martian year before arriving. Much larger than other craters Opportunity has visited at 22km in diameter. MGS found that it contains clay.
Sinus Sabaeus Quadrangle
- Sinus Sabaeus - Quadrangle on Mars near the equator. Many craters may have large reserves of water ice buried below them.
Mare Tyrrhenum Quadrangle
- Ma'adim Valley - One of Mars's largest canyons. Situated between Tharsis Plateau and Hellas impact basin. It runs south to north to Gusev crater, where the Spirit Rover was sent to investigate signs of ancient water. Mars Express found evidence of ancient lava flows and tectonics here.
- Troy - Site where the Spirit Rover got stuck. It has three multi-colored layers of soil which the Rover is studying.
- Home Plate - A multi-layered plateau explored by the Spirit Rover. It camped their during one of the Martian winters.
- Hale Crater - A Martian crater recently imaged by HiRISE that contains gullies on its edges. It is likely the youngest of all craters its size. There are some who claim ancient ruins have been found here.
- Proctor Crater - A crater in the Noachis quadrangle, one of the oldest regions on Mars. Large sand dunes were found in it by the MRO HiRISE camera.
- Hellas Basin - The largest impact basin on Mars, second or third in the solar system. Evidence was found it could have been a huge lake 3 Billion Years Ago.
- Promethei Terra (Mar) - Large heavily cratered highland region of Mars to the east of Hellas Basin. It likely contains rock covered glaciers. It also has gullies that were formed only 1.25 MYA.
- Ariadnes Colles (Apr) - A chaotic terrain on Mars in the southern highlands imaged by Mars Express.