FANDOM


---------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Module:Citation/CS1 - Lua module for Citation Style 1 templates
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--                               (see NOTES at bottom)
--require "mw.text"
 
local z = {
    wikitext = require("Module:Wikitext"),
    mw = require("Module:Mw")
}
 
function hideinprint(content)
    return content
end
 
function onlyinprint(content)
    return ""
end
 
function nowiki(frame, content)
    return z.mw.text.tag({name="nowiki",contents=content,params={}}, frame)
end
 
function externallinkid(frame, args)
    local sep = args.separator or " "
    args.suffix = args.suffix or ""
    local url_string = args.id
    if args.encode == true or args.encode == nil then
        url_string = z.mw.url.encode( url_string );
    end
 
    local t0 = onlyinprint(args.label .. sep .. args.id)
    local t1 = hideinprint("[[" .. args.link .. "|" .. args.label .. "]]" .. sep .. "[" .. args.prefix .. url_string .. args.suffix .. " " .. nowiki(frame, args.id) .. "]")
 
    return t0 .. t1
end
 
function internallinkid(frame, args)
    local sep = args.separator or " "
    args.suffix = args.suffix or ""
    local t0 = onlyinprint(args.label .. sep .. args.id)
    local t1 = hideinprint("[[" .. args.link .. "|" .. args.label .. "]]" .. sep .. "[[" .. args.prefix .. args.id .. args.suffix .. "|" .. nowiki(frame, args.id) .. "]]")
    return t0 .. t1
end
 
function amazon(frame, id, domain)
    if ( nil == domain ) then 
        domain = "com"
    elseif ( "jp" == domain or "uk" == domain ) then
        domain = "co." .. domain
    end
    return externallinkid(frame, {link="Amazon Standard Identification Number",label="ASIN",prefix="//www.amazon."..domain.."/dp/",id=id})
end
 
function doi(frame, id, inactive, nocat)
    local cat = ""
    local text;
    if ( inactive ~= nil ) then 
        text = "[[Digital object identifier|doi]]:" .. id;
        cat = cat .. "[[Category:Pages with DOIs inactive since " .. selectyear(inactive) .. "]]"
        inactive = " (inactive " .. inactive .. ")" 
    else 
        text = externallinkid(frame, {link="Digital object identifier",label="doi",prefix="http://dx.doi.org/",id=id,separator=":"})
        inactive = "" 
    end
    if ( string.sub(id,1,3) ~= "10." ) then
        cat = cat .. "[[Category:Pages with DOI errors]]" .. '<span class="error"> Bad DOI (expected "10." prefix) in code number</span>'
    end
    if ( nocat and nocat ~= "" ) then cat = "" end
    return text .. inactive .. cat    
 end
 
function url(frame, id)
    local t0 = onlyinprint(id)
    local t1 = hideinprint("[" .. id .. " " .. nowiki(frame, id) .. "]")
    return t0 .. t1
end
 
function safeforurl( str )
    return str:gsub('%[','&#91;'):gsub('%]','&#93;'):gsub("\n", " ");
end
 
function selectyear( str )
    local lang = mw.getContentLanguage();
    local good, result;
    good, result = pcall( lang.formatDate, lang, 'Y', str )
    if good then 
        return result;
    else
        return '';
    end
end
 
function openlibrary(frame, id)
    local cat = ""
    local prefix = ""
    local code = id:sub(-1,-1)
    if ( code == "A" ) then
        prefix = "http://openlibrary.org/authors/OL"
    elseif ( code == "M" ) then
        prefix = "http://openlibrary.org/books/OL"
    elseif ( code == "W" ) then
        prefix = "http://openlibrary.org/works/OL"
    else
        prefix = "http://openlibrary.org/OL"
        cat = cat .. "[[Category:Pages with OL errors]]"
    end
    local text = externallinkid(frame, {link="Open Library",label="OL",prefix=prefix,id=id})
    return text .. cat
end
 
function reducetoinitials(first)
    local initials = {}
    for word in string.gmatch(first, "%S+") do
        table.insert(initials, string.sub(word,1,1)) -- Vancouver format does not include full stops.
    end
    return table.concat(initials) -- Vancouver format does not include spaces.
end
 
function listpeople(control, people)
    local sep = control.sep;
    if sep:sub(-1,-1) ~= " " then sep = sep .. " " end
    local namesep = control.namesep
    local format = control.format
    local maximum = control.maximum
    local text = {}
    local etal = false;
    for i,person in ipairs(people) do
        if (person.last ~= nil or person.last ~= "") then
            local mask = person.mask
            local one
            if ( maximum ~= nil and i == maximum + 1 ) then
                etal = true;
                break;
            elseif (mask ~= nil) then
                local n = tonumber(mask)
                if (n ~= nil) then
                    one = string.rep("&mdash;",n)
                else
                    one = mask
                end
            else
                one = person.last
                local first = person.first
                if (first ~= nil) then 
                    if ( "vanc" == format ) then first = reducetoinitials(first) end
                    one = one .. namesep .. first 
                end
                if (person.link ~= nil and person.link ~= "") then one = "[[" .. person.link .. "|" .. one .. "]]" end
            end
            table.insert(text, one)
        end
    end
    local count = #text;
    local result = table.concat(text, sep) -- construct list
    if etal then 
        local etal_text = "et al."
        if (sepc == ".") then etal_text = "et al" end
        result = result .. " " .. etal_text;
    end
 
    if ( "scap" == format ) then result= z.mw.text.tag({name="span", contents=result, params={class="smallcaps", style="font-variant:small-caps;"}}) end -- if necessary wrap result in <span> tag to format in Small Caps
    return result, count
end
 
function anchorid(args)
    local P1 = args[1] or ""
    local P2 = args[2] or ""
    local P3 = args[3] or ""
    local P4 = args[4] or ""
    local P5 = args[5] or ""
    return "CITEREF" .. P1 .. P2 .. P3 .. P4 .. P5
end
 
function refid(args)
    local p = args.p or ""
    local pp = args.pp or ""
    local loc = args.loc or ""
    return anchorid(args) .. p .. pp .. loc    
end
 
function name(args)
    local P1 = args[1] or ""
    if ( args[5] ~= nil) then
        return P1 .. " et al."
    else
        local P2 = args[2] or ""
        local P3 = args[3] or "" 
        local P4 = args[4] or ""
        if ( args[4] ~= nil ) then
            P4 = " " .. P4
            P3 = ", & " .. P3
            P2 = ", " .. P2
        elseif ( args[3] ~= nil ) then
            P3 = " " .. P3
            P2 = " & " .. P2
        elseif ( args[2] ~= nil ) then
            P2 = " " .. P2            
        end
        return P1 .. P2 .. P3 .. P4
    end 
end
 
function crossref(frame, args)
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local LB = config.BracketLeft or ""
    local RB = config.BracketRight or ""
    local anchor = args.ref or args.Ref or anchorid(args)
    local text = name(args)
    local loc = args.loc
    local page
    local pages = args.pp or args.pages
    if pages == nil or pages == '' then
        page = args.p or args.page;
    end 
    if nil == loc then loc = "" else loc = " " .. loc end
    if ( page ~= nil ) then
        local pagesep = config.PageSep or ", p. "
        loc = loc .. pagesep .. page
    end
    if ( pages ~= nil ) then
        local pagessep = config.PagesSep or ", pp. "
        loc = loc .. pagessep .. pages
    end        
    local pagename = args.pagename or ""
    local ps = args.Postscript or ""
    return LB .. "[[" .. pagename .. "#" .. anchor .. "|" .. text .. "]]" .. loc .. RB .. ps
end
 
function extractauthor(args, i)
    local last = args["author" .. i .. "-last"] or args["author-last" .. i] or args["last" .. i] or args["surname" .. i] or args["Author" .. i] or args["author" .. i]
    if ( last and "" < last ) then -- just in case someone passed in an empty parameter
        return {
            last = last,
            first = args["author" .. i .. "-first"] or args["author-first" .. i] or args["first" .. i] or args["given" .. i],
            link = args["author" .. i .. "-link"] or args["author-link" .. i] or args["author" .. i .. "link"] or args["authorlink" .. i],
            mask = args["author" .. i .. "-mask"] or args["author-mask" .. i] or args["author" .. i .. "mask"] or args["authormask" .. i]
        }
    else
        return nil
    end
end
 
function extracteditor(args, i)
    local last = args["editor" .. i .. "-last"] or args["editor-last" .. i] or args["EditorSurname" .. i] or args["Editor" .. i] or args["editor" .. i]
    if ( last and "" < last ) then -- just in case someone passed in an empty parameter
        return {
            last = last,
            first = args["editor" .. i .. "-first"] or args["editor-first" .. i] or args["EditorGiven" .. i],
            link = args["editor" .. i .. "-link"] or args["editor-link" .. i] or args["editor" .. i .. "link"] or args["editorlink" .. i],
            mask = args["editor" .. i .. "-mask"] or args["editor-mask" .. i] or args["editor" .. i .. "mask"] or args["editormask" .. i]
        }
    else
        return nil
    end
end
 
function citation0(frame, args)
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
 
    --------------------------------------------------- Get parameters    
    local PPrefix = config.PPrefix or "p.&nbsp;"
    local PPPrefix = config.PPPrefix or "pp.&nbsp;"
    if ( nil ~= args.nopp ) then PPPrefix = "" PPrefix = "" end
 
    -- Transfer unnumbered arguments to numbered arguments if necessary.
    args["author1"] = args.author1 or args.author or args.authors
    args["author1-last"] = args["author1-last"] or args["author-last"] or args["last"]
    args["author1-first"] = args["author1-first"] or args["author-first"]
      or args.first or args.first1 or args.given or args.given1
    args["author1-link"] = args["author1-link"] or args["author-link"]
    args["author1-mask"] = args["author1-mask"] or args["author-mask"]
    args["author1link"] = args["author1link"] or args["authorlink"]    
    args["editor1"] = args["editor1"] or args["editor"]
    args["editor1-last"] = args["editor1-last"] or args["editor-last"]
    args["editor1-first"] = args["editor1-first"] or args["editor-first"]
    args["editor1-link"] = args["editor1-link"] or args["editor-link"]
    args["editor1-mask"] = args["editor1-mask"] or args["editor-mask"]
    args["editor1link"] = args["editor1link"] or args["editorlink"]    
 
    -- Pick out the relevant fields from the arguments.  Different citation templates define different field names for the same underlying things.    
    local Authors = args.authors
    local i 
    local a = {}
    i = 1
    while true do
        a[i] = extractauthor(args, i)
        if ( nil == a[i]) then break end
        i = i + 1
    end
    local Coauthors = args.coauthors or args.coauthor 
    local Others = args.others 
    local EditorMask = args.editormask or args["editor-mask"]
    local EditorFormat = args["editor-format"] or args.editorformat
    local Editors = args.editors
    local e = {} 
    i = 1
    while true do
        e[i] = extracteditor(args, i)
        if ( nil == e[i]) then break end
        i = i + 1
    end
    local Year = args.year 
    local PublicationDate = args.publicationdate or args["publication-date"]
    local OrigYear = args.origyear
    local Date = args.date
    local LayDate = args.laydate
    ------------------------------------------------- Get title data
    local Title = args.title or args.encyclopaedia or args.encyclopedia or args.dictionary
    local BookTitle = args.booktitle
    local Conference = args.conference
    local TransTitle = args.trans_title
    local TitleNote = args.department
    local TitleLink = args.titlelink or args.episodelink
    local Chapter = args.chapter or args.contribution or args.entry
    local ChapterLink = args.chapterlink
    local TransChapter = args["trans-chapter"] or args.trans_chapter
    local TitleType = args.type
    local ArchiveURL = args["archive-url"] or args.archiveurl
    local URL = args.url
    local ChapterURL = args["chapter-url"] or args.chapterurl
    local ConferenceURL = args["conference-url"] or args.conferenceurl
    local Periodical = args.journal or args.newspaper or args.magazine or args.work or args.periodical or args.encyclopedia or args.encyclopaedia
    if ( config.CitationClass == "encyclopaedia" ) then
      if ( args.article and args.article ~= "") then
          if ( Title and Title ~= "") then Periodical = Title end
          Chapter = args.article
          TransChapter = TransTitle
      else
          if ( Periodical and Periodical ~= "") then
            Chapter = Title
            TransChapter = TransTitle
          else Periodical = Title
          end
      end
      Title = ""
    end
    local Series = args.series or args.version
    local Volume = args.volume
    local Issue = args.issue or args.number
    local Position = nil
    local Page
    local Pages = args.pages
    if Pages == nil or Pages == '' then
        Page = args.page  -- allows Pages to override Page
    end
    local PP = args.pp
    local At = args.at
    local Edition = args.edition
    local PublicationPlace = args["publication-place"] or args.publicationplace or args.place or args.location
    local Location = PublicationPlace
    local PublisherName = args.publisher
    local SubscriptionRequired = args.subscription
    local Via = args.via
    local AccessDate = args["access-date"] or args.accessdate
    local ArchiveDate = args["archive-date"] or args.archivedate
    local Agency = args.agency
    local DeadURL = args.deadurl
    local Language = args.language or args["in"]
    local Format = args.format
    local Ref = args.ref or args.Ref
    local ARXIV = args.arxiv or args.ARXIV
    local ASIN = args.asin or args.ASIN 
    local ASINTLD = args["ASIN-TLD"] or args["asin-tld"]
    local BIBCODE = args.bibcode or args.BIBCODE
    local DOI = args.doi or args.DOI
    local DoiBroken = args.doi_inactivedate or args.doi_brokendate or args.DoiBroken
    local ID = args.id or args.ID
    local ISBN = args.isbn13 or args.isbn or args.ISBN
    local ISSN = args.issn or args.ISSN
    local JFM = args.jfm or args.JFM
    local JSTOR = args.jstor or args.JSTOR
    local LCCN = args.lccn or args.LCCN
    local MR = args.mr or args.MR
    local OCLC = args.oclc or args.OCLC
    local OL = args.ol or args.OL
    local OSTI = args.osti or args.OSTI
    local PMC = args.pmc or args.PMC
    local PMID = args.pmid or args.PMID
    local RFC = args.rfc or args.RFC
    local SSRN = args.ssrn or args.SSRN
    local ZBL = args.zbl or args.ZBL
    local Quote = args.quote or args.quotation
    local PostScript = args.postscript
    local LaySummary = args.laysummary
    local LaySource = args.laysource
    local Transcript = args.transcript
    local TranscriptURL = args["transcript-url"] or args.transcripturl
    local sepc = args.separator
 
    if ( config.CitationClass == "journal" ) then
        if (URL == nil or URL == "") then
          if (PMC ~= nil and PMC ~="")
            then URL="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC" .. PMC
            else URL=""
          end
        end
    elseif ( config.CitationClass == "citation" ) then
        sepc = ","
        if ( Ref == nil ) then Ref = "harv" end
    end
    if ( sepc == nil ) then sepc = "." end 
    if ( DeadURL == nil ) then DeadURL = "yes" end
 
    -- At this point fields may be nil if they weren't specified in the template use.  We can use that fact.
 
    -- Account for the oddity that is {{cite conference}}, before generation of COinS data.
    if ( BookTitle ) then
        Chapter = Title
        ChapterLink = TitleLink
        TransChapter = TransTitle
        Title = BookTitle
        TitleLink = nil
        TransTitle = nil
    end
    -- Account for the oddity that is {{cite episode}}, before generation of COinS data.
    if config.CitationClass == "episode" then
        local AirDate = args.airdate
        local SeriesLink = args.serieslink
        local Season = args.season
        local SeriesNumber = args.seriesnumber or args.seriesno
        local Network = args.network
        local Station = args.station
        local s = {}
        if Issue ~= nil then table.insert(s, "episode " .. Issue) Issue = nil end
        if Season ~= nil then table.insert(s, "season " .. Season) end
        if SeriesNumber ~= nil then table.insert(s, "series " .. SeriesNumber) end
        local n = {}
        if Network ~= nil then table.insert(n, Network) end
        if Station ~= nil then table.insert(n, Station) end
        Date = Date or AirDate
        Chapter = Title
        ChapterLink = TitleLink
        TransChapter = TransTitle
        Title = Series
        TitleLink = SeriesLink
        TransTitle = nil
        local Sep = args["series-separator"] or args["separator"] or ". "
        Series = table.concat(s, Sep)
        ID = table.concat(n, Sep)
    end
 
    -- These data form a COinS tag (see <http://ocoins.info/>) which allows automated tools to parse the citation information.
    local OCinSdata = {} -- COinS metadata excluding id, bibcode, doi, etc.
    local ctx_ver = "Z39.88-2004" 
    OCinSdata.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book"
    if ( nil ~= Periodical ) then
        OCinSdata.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal"
        OCinSdata["rft.genre"] = "article"
        OCinSdata["rft.jtitle"] = Periodical
        if ( nil ~= Title ) then OCinSdata["rft.atitle"] = Title end
    end
    if ( nil ~= Chapter and "" ~= Chapter) then
        OCinSdata.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book"
        OCinSdata["rft.genre"] = "bookitem"
        OCinSdata["rft.btitle"] = Chapter
        if ( nil ~= Title ) then OCinSdata["rft.atitle"] = Title end
    else
        OCinSdata["rft.genre"] = "book"
	    if ( nil ~= Title ) then OCinSdata["rft.btitle"] = Title end
    end
    OCinSdata["rft.place"] = PublicationPlace
    OCinSdata["rft.date"] = Date or Year or PublicationDate
    OCinSdata["rft.series"] = Series
    OCinSdata["rft.volume"] = Volume
    OCinSdata["rft.issue"] = Issue
    OCinSdata["rft.pages"] = Page or Pages or At
    OCinSdata["rft.edition"] = Edition
    OCinSdata["rft.pub"] = PublisherName
    OCinSdata["rft.isbn"] = ISBN
    OCinSdata["rft.issn"] = ISSN
    OCinSdata["rft.jfm"] = JFM
    OCinSdata["rft.jstor"] = JSTOR
    OCinSdata["rft.lccn"] = LCCN
    OCinSdata["rft.mr"] = MR
    OCinSdata.rft_id = URL or ChapterURL
    if ( nil ~= a[1] and nil ~= a[1].last) then
    local last = a[1].last
	local first = a[1].first
	OCinSdata["rft.aulast"] = last
        if ( nil ~= first ) then 
	    OCinSdata["rft.aufirst"] = first
	    OCinSdata["rft.au"] = last .. (args.NameSep or ", ") .. first
	else
	    OCinSdata["rft.au"] = last
        end
    end
    local OCinSids = {} -- COinS data only for id, bibcode, doi, pmid, etc.
    OCinSids["info:arxiv"] = ARXIV
    OCinSids["info:asin"] = ASIN
    OCinSids["info:bibcode"] = BIBCODE
    OCinSids["info:doi"] = DOI
    OCinSids["info:oclcnum"] = OCLC
    OCinSids["info:olnum"] = OL
    OCinSids["info:osti"] = OSTI
    OCinSids["info:pmc"] = PMC
    OCinSids["info:pmid"] = PMID
    OCinSids["info:rfc"] = RFC
    OCinSids["info:ssrn"] = SSRN
    OCinSids["info:zbl"] = ZBL
    local OCinStitle = "ctx_ver=" .. ctx_ver  -- such as "Z39.88-2004"
    for name,value in pairs(OCinSids) do
        OCinStitle = OCinStitle .. "&rft_id=" .. z.mw.url.encode(name .. "/" .. value)
    end
    for name,value in pairs(OCinSdata) do
        OCinStitle = OCinStitle .. "&" .. name .. "=" .. z.mw.url.encode(value)
    end
    OCinStitle = OCinStitle .. "&rfr_id=info:sid/en.wikipedia.org:"
       .. config.fullpagename  -- end COinS data by page's non-encoded pagename
 
    -- Now perform various field substitutions.
    -- We also add leading spaces and surrounding markup and punctuation to the various parts of the citation, but only when they are non-nil.
    if ( Authors == nil ) then 
        local AuthorNameSep = args["author-name-separator"] or args["name-separator"] or "&#44;"
        AuthorNameSep = AuthorNameSep .. " "
        local AuthorSep = args["author-separator"] or args["separator"] or "&#59;"
        AuthorSep = AuthorSep .. " "
        local AuthorFormat = args["author-format"] or args.authorformat
        local AuthorMaximum = tonumber(args["display-authors"] or args.displayauthors) or 8
        local control = { sep = AuthorSep, namesep = AuthorNameSep, format = AuthorFormat, maximum = AuthorMaximum }
        Authors = listpeople(control, a) 
    end
    local EditorCount
    if ( Editors == nil ) then 
        local EditorNameSep = args["editor-name-separator"] or args["name-separator"] or "&#44; "
        local EditorSep = args["editor-separator"] or args["separator"] or "&#59; "
        local EditorFormat = args["editor-format"] or args.editorformat
        local EditorMaximum = tonumber(args["display-editors"] or args.displayeditors) or 3
        local control = { sep = EditorSep, namesep = EditorNameSep, format = EditorFormat, maximum = EditorMaximum }
        Editors, EditorCount = listpeople(control, e) 
    else
        EditorCount = 1;
    end
    if ( Date == nil or Date == "") then
--   there's something hinky with how this adds dashes to perfectly-good free-standing years
--[[        Date = Year
        if ( Date ~= nil ) then
            local Month = args.month
            if ( Month == nil ) then 
                local Began = args.began
                local Ended = args.ended
                if Began ~= nil and Ended ~= nil then
                    Month = Began .. "&ndash;" .. Ended
                else
                    Month = "&ndash;"
                end
            end
            Date = Month .. " " .. Date
            local Day = args.day
            if ( Day ~= nil ) then Date = Day .. " " .. Date end
        end
]] -- so let's use the original version for now
        Date = Year
        if ( Date ~= nil and Date ~="") then
            local Month = args.month
            if ( Month ~= nil and Month ~= "") then 
                Date = Month .. " " .. Date 
                local Day = args.day
                if ( Day ~= nil ) then Date = Day .. " " .. Date end
                else Month = ""
            end
            else Date = ""
        end
    end
    if ( PublicationDate == Date or PublicationDate == Year ) then PublicationDate = nil end
    if( (Date == nil or Date == "") and PublicationDate ~= nil ) then 
        Date = PublicationDate;
        PublicationDate = nil;
    end    
 
    -- Captures the value for Date prior to adding parens or other textual transformations
    local DateIn = Date
 
    if ( ArchiveURL and "" < ArchiveURL ) then
        if ( DeadURL ~= "no" ) then
          local temp = URL
          URL = ArchiveURL
        end
    end
    if ( TransTitle and "" < TransTitle ) then TransTitle = " [" .. TransTitle .. "&#93;" else TransTitle = "" end
    if ( TransChapter and "" < TransChapter ) then TransChapter = " [" .. TransChapter .. "&#93;" else TransChapter = "" end
    if ( Chapter and "" < Chapter ) then
        if ( ChapterLink and "" < ChapterLink ) then Chapter = "[[" .. ChapterLink .. "|" .. Chapter .. "]]" end
        if ( Periodical and "" < Periodical
            and config.CitationClass ~= "encyclopaedia"
        ) then
            if Chapter:sub(1,1) == "'" then Chapter = "<span />" .. Chapter; end
            if Chapter:sub(-1,-1) == "'" then Chapter = Chapter .. "<span />"; end
            Chapter = "''" .. Chapter .. "''"
        else
            Chapter = "\"" .. Chapter .. "\""
        end
        Chapter = Chapter .. TransChapter
        if ( ChapterLink == nil ) then
            if ( ChapterURL and "" < ChapterURL ) then
                Chapter = "[" .. ChapterURL .. " " .. safeforurl( Chapter )  .. "]"
            elseif ( URL and "" < URL ) then 
                Chapter = "[" .. URL .. " " .. safeforurl( Chapter ) .. "]"
                URL = nil
            end
        end
        Chapter = Chapter .. sepc .. " " -- with end-space
    else 
        Chapter = "" 
    end
    if ( Title and "" < Title ) then
        if ( TitleLink and "" < TitleLink ) then
            Title = "[[" .. TitleLink .. "|" .. Title .. "]]" end
        if ( Periodical and "" < Periodical ) then
            Title = "\"" .. Title .. "\""
        elseif ( config.CitationClass == "web"
              or config.CitationClass == "news" ) then
            Title = "\"" .. Title .. "\""
        else
            if Title:sub(1,1) == "'" then Title = "<span />" .. Title; end
            if Title:sub(-1,-1) == "'" then Title = Title .. "<span />"; end
 
            Title = "''" .. Title .. "''"
        end
        Title = Title .. TransTitle
        if ( TitleLink == nil and URL and "" < URL ) then 
            Title = "[" .. URL .. " " .. safeforurl( Title ) .. "]"
            URL = nil
        end
    else 
        Title = "" 
    end
    if ( Conference ~= nil and Conference ~="" ) then
        if ( ConferenceURL ~= nil ) then
            Conference = "[" .. ConferenceURL .. " " .. safeforurl( Conference ) .. "]"
        end
        Conference = " " .. Conference
    else 
        Conference = "" 
    end
    if ( nil ~= Position or nil ~= Page or nil ~= Pages ) then At = nil end
    if ( nil == Position and "" ~= Position ) then
        local Minutes = args.minutes
        if ( nil ~= Minutes ) then
            Position = " " .. Minutes .. " minutes in"
        else
            local Time = args.time
            if ( nil ~= Time ) then
                local TimeCaption = args.timecaption or "Event occurs at"
                Position = " " .. TimeCaption .. " " .. Time
            else
                Position = ""
            end
        end
    else
        Position = " " .. Position
    end
    if ( nil == Page or "" == Page ) then 
        Page = "" 
    elseif ( Periodical ~= nil and Periodical ~= "" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "encyclopaedia" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "web" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "book" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "news") then
        Page = ": " .. Page
    else
        Page = sepc .." " .. PPrefix .. Page
    end
    if ( nil == Pages or "" == Pages) then 
        Pages = "" 
    elseif ( Periodical ~= nil and Periodical ~= "" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "encyclopaedia" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "web" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "book" and
             config.CitationClass ~= "news") then
        Pages = ": " .. Pages
    else
        if ( tonumber(Pages) ~= nil ) then
          Pages = sepc .." " .. PPrefix .. Pages
        else Pages = sepc .." " .. PPPrefix .. Pages
        end
    end
    if ( At ~= nil and At ~="") then At = sepc .. " " .. At
    else At = "" end
    if ( Coauthors == nil ) then Coauthors = "" end
    if ( Others ~= nil and Others ~="" ) then
        Others = sepc .. " " .. Others else Others = "" end
    if ( TitleType ~= nil and TitleType ~="" ) then
        TitleType = " (" .. TitleType .. ")" else TitleType = "" end
    if ( TitleNote ~= nil and TitleNote ~="" ) then
        TitleNote = sepc .. " " .. TitleNote else TitleNote = "" end
    if ( PublicationPlace ~= nil and PublicationPlace ~="" ) then
        PublicationPlace = PublicationPlace .. ": "
        else PublicationPlace = "" end
    if ( Language ~= nil and Language ~="" ) then
        Language = " (in " .. Language .. ")" else Language = "" end
    if ( Edition ~= nil and Edition ~="" ) then
        Edition = " (" .. Edition .. " ed.)" else Edition = "" end
    if ( Volume ~= nil and Volume ~="" )
    then
        if ( string.len(Volume) > 4 )
          then Volume = sepc .." " .. Volume
          else Volume = " <b>" .. Volume .. "</b>"
        end
    else Volume = "" end
    if ( Issue ~= nil and Issue ~="" ) then
        Issue = " (" .. Issue .. ")" else Issue = "" end
    if ( Series ~= nil and Series ~="" ) then
        Series = sepc .. " " .. Series else Series = "" end
    if ( Format ~= nil and Format ~="" ) then
        Format = " (" .. Format .. ")" else Format = "" end
    if ( OrigYear ~= nil and OrigYear ~="" ) then
        OrigYear = " [" .. OrigYear .. "]" else OrigYear = "" end
    if ( Agency ~= nil and Agency ~="" ) then
        Agency = sepc .. " " .. Agency else Agency = "" end
    ------------------------------------ totally unrelated data
    if ( Date ~= nil ) then Date = Date else Date = "" end
    if ( Via ~= nil and Via ~="" ) then
        Via = " &mdash; via " .. Via else Via = "" end
    if ( AccessDate ~= nil and AccessDate ~="" )
    then local retrv_text = " retrieved "
         if (sepc == ".") then retrv_text = " Retrieved " end
         AccessDate = '<span class="reference-accessdate">'
         .. sepc .. retrv_text .. AccessDate .. '</span>'
    else AccessDate = "" end
    if ( SubscriptionRequired ~= nil and
         SubscriptionRequired ~= "" ) then
        SubscriptionRequired = sepc .. " " .. z.mw.text.tag({name="span", contents="(subscription required)", params={style="font-size:0.95em; font-size: 90%; color: #555"}})
    else
        SubscriptionRequired = ""
    end
    if ( ARXIV ~= nil and ARXIV ~= "" ) then
        ARXIV = sepc .. " " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="arXiv",link="arXiv",prefix="http://arxiv.org/abs/",id=ARXIV,separator=":",encode=false}) else ARXIV = "" end
    if ( ASIN ~= nil and ASIN ~= "" ) then 
        ASIN = sepc .. " " .. amazon(frame, ASIN, ASINTLD) else ASIN = "" end
    if ( BIBCODE ~= nil and BIBCODE ~= "" ) then
        BIBCODE = sepc .. " " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="Bibcode",link="Bibcode",prefix="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/",id=BIBCODE,separator=":"}) else BIBCODE = "" end
    if ( DOI ~= nil and DOI ~= "" ) then
       DOI = sepc .. " " .. doi(frame, DOI, DoiBroken) else DOI = "" end
    if ( ID ~= nil and ID ~="") then ID = sepc .." ".. ID else ID="" end
    if ( ISBN ~= nil and ISBN ~= "") then
        ISBN = sepc .. " " .. internallinkid(frame, {label="ISBN",link="International Standard Book Number",prefix="Special:BookSources/",id=ISBN}) else ISBN = "" end
    if ( ISSN ~= nil and ISSN ~="" ) then
        ISSN = sepc .. " " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="ISSN",link="International Standard Serial Number",prefix="//www.worldcat.org/issn/",id=ISSN,encode=false}) else ISSN = "" end
    if ( JFM ~= nil and JFM ~="" ) then
        JFM = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="JFM",link="Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik",prefix="http://www.zentralblatt-math.org/zmath/en/search/?format=complete&q=an:",id=JFM}) else JFM = "" end
    if ( JSTOR ~= nil and JSTOR ~="") then
        JSTOR = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="JSTOR",link="JSTOR",prefix="http://www.jstor.org/stable/",id=JSTOR}) else JSTOR = "" end
    if ( LCCN ~= nil and LCCN ~="" ) then
        LCCN = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="LCCN",link="Library of Congress Control Number",prefix="http://lccn.loc.gov/",id=LCCN,encode=false}) else LCCN = "" end
    if ( MR ~= nil and MR ~="" ) then
        MR = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="MR",link="Mathematical Reviews",prefix="http://www.ams.org/mathscinet-getitem?mr=",id=MR}) else MR = "" end
    if ( OCLC ~= nil and OCLC ~="") then 
        OCLC = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="OCLC",link="OCLC",prefix="//www.worldcat.org/oclc/",id=OCLC}) else OCLC = "" end
    if ( OL ~= nil and OL ~="") then
        OL = sepc .." " .. openlibrary(frame, OL) else OL = "" end
    if ( OSTI ~= nil and OSTI ~="") then
        OSTI = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="OSTI",link="Office of Scientific and Technical Information",prefix="http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=",id=OSTI}) else OSTI = "" end
    if ( PMC ~= nil and PMC ~="") then
        PMC = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="PMC",link="PubMed Central",prefix="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC",suffix=" ",id=PMC}) else PMC = "" end
    if ( PMID ~= nil and PMID ~="") then
        PMID = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="PMID",link="PubMed Identifier",prefix="//www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/",id=PMID,encode=false}) else PMID = "" end
    if ( RFC ~= nil and RFC ~="") then
        RFC = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="RFC",link="Request for Comments",prefix="//tools.ietf.org/html/rfc",id=RFC}) else RFC = "" end
    if ( SSRN ~= nil and SSRN ~="") then
        SSRN = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="SSRN",link="Social Science Research Network",prefix="http://ssrn.com/abstract=",id=SSRN}) else SSRN = "" end
    if ( URL ~= nil and URL ~="") then
       URL = " " .. url(frame, URL)
    else
       URL = ""
    end
    if ( ZBL ~= nil and ZBL ~="") then
        ZBL = sepc .." " .. externallinkid(frame, {label="Zbl",link="Zentralblatt MATH",prefix="http://www.zentralblatt-math.org/zmath/en/search/?format=complete&q=an:",id=ZBL}) else ZBL = "" end
    if ( Quote and Quote ~="" ) then 
        if Quote:sub(1,1) == '"' and Quote:sub(-1,-1) == '"' then
            Quote = Quote:sub(2,-2);
        end
 
        Quote = sepc .." \"" .. Quote .. "\"" 
        PostScript = ""
    else 
        if ( PostScript == nil) then PostScript = "" end
        Quote = "" 
    end
    local Archived
    if ( nil ~= ArchiveURL and "" ~= ArchiveURL ) then
        if ( ArchiveDate ~= nil and ArchiveDate ~="" ) then
            ArchiveDate = " " .. ArchiveDate
        else ArchiveDate = "" end
        local arch_text = " archived"
        if (sepc == ".") then arch_text = " Archived" end
        if ( "no" == DeadURL ) then
            Archived = sepc .. " [" .. ArchiveURL .. arch_text .. "] from the original on" .. ArchiveDate
        else
            Archived = sepc .. arch_text .. " from [" .. args.url .. " the original] on" .. ArchiveDate
        end
    else
        Archived = ""
    end
    local Lay
    if ( nil ~= LaySummary and "" ~= LaySummary ) then
        if ( LayDate ~= nil ) then LayDate = " (" .. LayDate .. ")" else LayDate = "" end
        if ( LaySource ~= nil ) then 
            if LaySource:sub(1,1) == "'" then LaySource = "<span />" .. LaySource; end
            if LaySource:sub(-1,-1) == "'" then LaySource = LaySource .. "<span />"; end
 
            LaySource = " &ndash; ''" .. LaySource .. "''" 
        else 
            LaySource = "" 
        end
        Lay = " [" .. LaySummary .. " lay summary]" .. LaySource .. LayDate
    else
        Lay = ""
    end
    if ( nil ~= Transcript and "" ~= Transcript ) then
        if ( TranscriptURL ~= nil ) then Transcript = "[" .. TranscriptURL .. Transcript .. "]" end
    else
        Transcript = ""
    end
    local Publisher = ""
    if ( Periodical and Periodical ~= "" and
         config.CitationClass ~= "encyclopaedia" and
         config.CitationClass ~= "web" ) then
        if ( PublicationDate and PublicationDate ~="" )
            then PublicationDate = " " .. PublicationDate
            else PublicationDate = "" end
        if ( PublisherName and PublisherName ~="" ) then
            Publisher = " (" .. PublicationPlace .. PublisherName .. PublicationDate .. ")"
        else
            if (Location ~= nil and Location ~= '') then Publisher= " (" .. Location .. ")"
            else Publisher = "" end
        end
    else
        if ( PublicationDate and PublicationDate ~="" ) then
            PublicationDate = " (published " .. PublicationDate .. ")"
            else PublicationDate = "" end
        if ( PublisherName and PublisherName ~="" ) then
            Publisher = sepc .. " " .. PublicationPlace .. PublisherName .. PublicationDate
        else
            if (Location ~= nil and Location ~= '') then Publisher= sepc .. " " .. Location
            else Publisher = "" end
        end
    end
    -- Several of the above rely upon detecting this as nil, so do it last.
    if ( Periodical ~= nil and Periodical ~="" ) then 
        if Periodical:sub(1,1) == "'" then Periodical = "<span />" .. Periodical; end
        if Periodical:sub(-1,-1) == "'" then Periodical = Periodical .. "<span />"; end
 
        if ( Title and Title ~= "") then 
            Periodical = sepc .. " ''" .. Periodical .. "''"
        else 
            Periodical = "''" .. Periodical .. "''"
        end
    else Periodical = "" end
 
    -- Piece all bits together at last.  Here, all should be non-nil.
    -- We build things this way because it is more efficient in LUA
    -- not to keep reassigning to the same string variable over and over.
 
    local tcommon
    if ( config.CitationClass == "journal" )
    then tcommon = Title .. TitleNote .. Format .. TitleType .. Conference .. Periodical .. Series .. Language .. Edition .. Publisher .. Agency .. Others .. Volume .. Issue .. Position
    elseif ( config.CitationClass == "citation" )
    then tcommon = Title .. TitleNote .. Format .. TitleType .. Conference .. Periodical .. Series .. Language .. Volume .. Issue .. Edition .. Publisher .. Agency .. Others .. Position
    else tcommon = Title .. TitleNote .. Series .. Format .. TitleType .. Conference .. Periodical .. Language .. Volume .. Issue .. Edition .. Publisher .. Agency .. Others .. Position
    end
    -- DEBUG: tcommon = "/Title="..Title .. "/TitleType="..TitleType .. "/TitleNote="..TitleNote .. "/Format="..Format .. "/Edition="..Edition .. "/Language="..Language .. "/Conference="..Conference .. "/Periodical="..Periodical .. "/Series="..Series .. "/Volume="..Volume .. "/Issue="..Issue .. "/Position="..Position
 
    local idcommon = ARXIV .. ASIN .. BIBCODE .. DOI .. ISBN .. ISSN .. JFM .. JSTOR .. LCCN .. MR .. OCLC .. OL .. OSTI .. PMC .. PMID .. RFC .. SSRN .. URL .. ZBL .. ID .. Archived .. AccessDate .. Via .. SubscriptionRequired .. Lay .. Quote .. PostScript
    local enddot = ""
    if (Title ~= "") then enddot = "." end
    if (Periodical ~= "") then enddot = "." end
    if (Quote ~= "") then enddot = "" end
    if ( string.sub(idcommon,-1,-1) == sepc) then enddot = "" end
    if ( config.CitationClass == "citation") then enddot = "" end
    idcommon = idcommon .. enddot
 
    if ( config.CitationClass == "encyclopaedia" ) then
        Chapter = Chapter
    end
 
    local text
    local pgtext = Page .. Pages .. At
    if ( "" ~= Authors ) then
        if (Coauthors ~= "") 
          then Authors = Authors .. "; " .. Coauthors
        end
        if ( "" ~= Date )
          then Date = " ("..Date..")" .. OrigYear .. sepc .. " "
          else
            if ( string.sub(Authors,-1,-1) == sepc) --check end character
              then Authors = Authors .. " "
              else Authors = Authors .. sepc .. " "
            end
        end
        if ( "" ~= Editors) then
            local in_text = " in "
            if (sepc == '.') then in_text = " In " end
            if (string.sub(Editors,-1,-1) == sepc)
                then Editors = in_text .. Editors .. " "
                else Editors = in_text .. Editors .. sepc .. " "
            end
        end
        text = Authors .. Date .. Chapter .. Editors .. tcommon
        if ( text:sub(-1,-1) == "." and --prior text ends as "."
             pgtext:sub(1,1) == "." )
            then pgtext = pgtext:sub(2,-1) end --truncate by 1
        text = text .. pgtext .. idcommon
    elseif ( "" ~= Editors) then
        if ( "" ~= Date ) then
            if EditorCount <= 1 then
                Editors = Editors .. ", ed."
            else
                Editors = Editors .. ", eds."
            end                
            Date = " (" .. Date ..")" .. OrigYear .. sepc .. " "
        else
            if EditorCount <= 1 then
                Editors = Editors .. " (ed.)" .. sepc .. " "
            else
                Editors = Editors .. " (eds.)" .. sepc .. " "
            end                
        end
        text = Editors .. Date .. Chapter .. tcommon
        if ( text:sub(-1,-1) == "." and --prior text ends as "."
             pgtext:sub(1,1) == "." )
            then pgtext = pgtext:sub(2,-1) end --truncate by 1
        text = text .. pgtext .. idcommon
    else
        if ( "" ~= Date ) then
            if ( string.sub(tcommon,-1,-1) ~= sepc )
              then Date = sepc .." " .. Date
              else Date = " " .. Date
            end
        end -- endif ""~=Date
        text = Chapter .. tcommon .. Date
        if ( text:sub(-1,-1) == "." and --prior text ends as "."
             pgtext:sub(1,1) == "." )
            then pgtext = pgtext:sub(2,-1) end --truncate by 1
        text = text .. pgtext .. idcommon
    end
 
    -- Now enclose the whole thing in a <span/> element
    if ( Year == nil ) then
        if ( DateIn ~= nil and DateIn ~= "" ) then 
            Year = selectyear( DateIn )
        elseif( PublicationDate ~= nil and PublicationDate ~= "" ) then
            Year = selectyear( PublicationDate )
        else
            Year = ""
        end        
    end
    local classname = "citation"
    if ( config.CitationClass ~= "citation" )
       then classname = "citation " .. (config.CitationClass or "") end
    local args = { class=classname }
    if ( Ref ~= nil ) then 
        local id = Ref
        if ( "harv" == Ref ) then
            local names = {} --table of last names & year
            if ( "" ~= Authors ) then
                for i,v in ipairs(a) do names[i] = v.last end
            elseif ( "" ~= Editors ) then
                for i,v in ipairs(e) do names[i] = v.last end
            end
            if ( names[1] == nil ) then 
                names[1] = Year 
            elseif ( names[2] == nil ) then 
                names[2] = Year 
            elseif ( names[3] == nil ) then
                names[3] = Year
            elseif ( names[4] == nil ) then
                names[4] = Year
            else
                names[5] = Year
            end
            id = anchorid(names)
        end
        args.id = id;
    end
    if ( text:sub(-4,-1) == ".''." ) then --when dot after title
        text = text:sub(1,-2) end --truncate end-dot
    text = z.mw.text.tag({name="span", contents=text, params=args})
 
    local empty_span = z.mw.text.tag( {name="span", contents="&nbsp;", params={style="display: none;"}} );
 
    -- Note: Using display: none on then COinS span breaks some clients.
    local OCinS = z.mw.text.tag({name="span", contents=empty_span, params={class="Z3988",title=OCinStitle }}) 
 
    return text .. OCinS
end
 
function r0(frame, name, group, page)
    if ( name == nil ) then return "" end
    if ( group == nil ) then group = "" end
    local p = ""
    if ( page ~= nil ) then 
        local contents = ":" .. page
        p = z.mw.text.tag({name="sup",contents=contents,params={class="reference",style="white-space:nowrap;"}}) 
    end
    return z.mw.text.tag({name="ref",contents="",params={name=name,group=group}}, frame) .. p
end
 
function reflist0(frame, config, args)
    local contents = args.refs or ""
    local liststyle = args.liststyle
    local count = args[1]
    local width = args.colwidth
    local group = args.group or config.default_group
    if ( nil == tonumber(count) and nil == width ) then 
        width = count
        count = nil
    end
    if ( nil == liststyle ) then
        if ( "upper-alpha" == group or "lower-alpha" == group or "upper-roman" == group or "lower-roman" == group or "upper-greek" == group or "lower-greek" == group ) then
            liststyle = group
        else
            liststyle = config.default_liststyle
        end
    end
    local params = {}
    params.class = "reflist"    
    params.style = z.wikitext.liststyle(liststyle)
    if ( nil ~= count ) then        
        params.class = params.class .. " references-column-count references-column-count-" .. count
        params.style = params.style .. " " .. z.wikitext.columncountstyle(count)
    end    
    if ( nil ~= width ) then
        params.class = params.class .. " references-column-width"
        params.style = params.style .. " " .. z.wikitext.columnwidthstyle(width)
    end
    local references = z.mw.text.tag({name="references",contents=contents,params={group=group}}, frame)
    return z.mw.text.tag({name="div",contents=references,params=params})
end
 
function refbegin0(frame, config, args)
    local liststyle = args.liststyle
    local indent = args.indent
    local indentsize = args.indentsize
    local count = args[1]
    local width = args.colwidth
    if ( nil == tonumber(count) and nil == width ) then 
        width = count
        count = nil
    end
    if ( nil == liststyle ) then
        if ( "upper-alpha" == group or "lower-alpha" == group or "upper-roman" == group or "lower-roman" == group or "upper-greek" == group or "lower-greek" == group ) then
            liststyle = group
        else
            liststyle = config.default_liststyle
        end
    end
    local params = {}
    params.class = "refbegin"
    params.style = z.wikitext.liststyle(liststyle)
    if ( nil ~= count ) then        
        params.class = params.class .. " references-column-count references-column-count-" .. count
        params.style = params.style .. " " .. z.wikitext.columncountstyle(count)
    end    
    if ( nil ~= width ) then
        params.class = params.class .. " references-column-width"
        params.style = params.style .. " " .. z.wikitext.columnwidthstyle(width)
    end
    local dlopen
    if ( nil ~= indent ) then
        dlopen = z.wikitext.OpenHTMLTag({name="dl",params={style="text-indent: -" .. (indentsize or "3.2") .. "em;"}})
    else
        dlopen = ""
    end
    return z.wikitext.OpenHTMLTag({name="div",params=params}) .. dlopen
end
 
function refend0(frame, config, args)
    local indent = args.indent
    local dlclose
    if ( nil ~= indent ) then
        dlclose = "</dl>"
    else
        dlclose = ""
    end
    return dlclose .. "</div>"
end
 
-- This is used by {{doi}} to create DOI links in the style used in citations.
function z.doi(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local id = pframe.args.id or pframe.args[1] or ""
    return doi(frame, id)
end
 
-- This is used by {{ISSN}} to create ISSN links in the style used in citations.
function z.ISSN(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local Name = pframe.args[1] or ""
    return hideinprint(frame, "[[International Standard Serial Number|ISSN]]&nbsp;[http://www.worldcat.org/search?fq=x0:jrnl&q=n2:" .. Name .. " " .. Name .. "]")
end
 
-- This is used by templates such as {{SfnRef}} to create the (encoded) anchor name for a Harvard cross-reference hyperlink.
function z.SFNID(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    return anchorid(pframe.args)
end
 
-- This is used by templates such as {{Harvard citation}} to create the Harvard cross-reference text.
function z.Harvard(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    return crossref(frame, pframe.args)
end
 
-- This is used by templates such as {{cite book}} to create the actual citation text.
function z.citation(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    return citation0(frame, pframe.args)
end
 
-- This is used by templates such as {{sfn}} to create the entire cross-reference.
function z.sfn(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local content = crossref(frame, pframe.args)
    local args = { name = refid(pframe.args) }
    return z.mw.text.tag({name = "ref", contents = content, params = args}, frame)
end
 
-- This is used by template {{r}}.
function z.r(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local args = pframe.args -- the arguments passed TO the template, in the wikitext that instantiates the template
    args.page1 = args.page1 or args.page
    local text = ""
    -- This would be shorter using ipairs(), but that doesn't work on an arguments table supplied to a template.
    local index = 1
    while args[index] ~= nil do
        local arg = args[index]
        local t = r0(frame, arg, args.group, args["page" .. index])
        text = text .. t
        index = index + 1
    end
    return text
end
 
-- This is used by template {{ref label}}.
function z.reflabel(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local args = pframe.args -- the arguments passed TO the template, in the wikitext that instantiates the template
    local P1 = args[1] or ""
    local P2 = args[2] or ""
    local P3 = args[3] or ""
    local id = nil
    local contents = "[[#endnote_" .. P1 .. P3 .. "|&#91;" .. P2 .. "&#93;]]"
    local params = {}
    params.class="reference"
    if ( args.noid == nil or args.noid == "" ) then params.id = "ref_" .. P1 .. P3 end
    return z.mw.text.tag({name="sup",contents=contents,params=params})
end
 
-- This is used by template {{note label}}.
function z.notelabel(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local args = pframe.args -- the arguments passed TO the template, in the wikitext that instantiates the template
    local id = args[1] or ""
    local arrow = args[3] or ""
    local postscript = args[4] or ""
    local contents 
    if arrow ~= "" then
        local sup_arrow = z.mw.text.tag({name="sup",contents=arrow,params={}})
        contents = "[[#ref_" .. id .. arrow .. "|<b>" .. sup_arrow .. "</b>]]" .. postscript
        if "none" == arrow then arrow = "^" end -- Change this AFTER using it in the ID parameter and the contents.
    else
        contents = (args[2] or "") .. postscript
    end
    local params = { class="citation wikicite" }
    if id ~= "" and ( args.noid == nil or args.noid == "" ) then 
        params.id = z.mw.url.encodeAnchor("endnote_" .. id .. arrow)
    end
    return z.mw.text.tag({name="span",contents=contents,params=params})
end
 
-- This is used by templates {{reflist}} and {{notelist}}.
function z.reflist(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local args = pframe.args -- the arguments passed TO the template, in the wikitext that instantiates the template
    return reflist0(frame, config, args)
end
 
-- This is used by template {{refbegin}}.
function z.refbegin(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local args = pframe.args -- the arguments passed TO the template, in the wikitext that instantiates the template
    return refbegin0(frame, config, args)
end
 
-- This is used by template {{refend}}.
function z.refend(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local args = pframe.args -- the arguments passed TO the template, in the wikitext that instantiates the template
    return refend0(frame, config, args)
end
 
-- This is used by template {{efn}}.
function z.efn(frame)
    local pframe = frame:getParent()
    local config = frame.args -- the arguments passed BY the template, in the wikitext of the template itself
    local args = pframe.args -- the arguments passed TO the template, in the wikitext that instantiates the template
    return z.mw.text.tag({name="ref",contents=(args[1] or ""),params={name=args.name,group=config.default_group}}, frame)
end
 
return z
---------------------------------------------------------------------
--NOTES
--
-- NOTE A1: This Lua module was originally designed to handle a mix
--      of citation styles, crossing Vancouver style with Wikipedia's
--      local Citation Style 1 (CS1) from {Template:Citation/core}.
--      However, the conflicting positions of parameters, scattered
--      in twisted locations across this module, led to a separate
--      variation just to untangle the CS1 format of citations.
--
-- NOTE D2: The placement of dots and other separators between the
--      displayed parameters has been a continual headache, to keep
--      coordinated with the data in parentheses "(data)". There
--      has been a need to pre-check for the existence of related
--      options, to keep from putting double-dots ".." in some cases.
--      In particular, the omission of the "title=" parameter has led
--      to several cases of a spurious dot ". ." because the original
--      design had treated the title as a mandatory parameter.
--
------------------------------------------------------------------------
--HISTORY:
--18Oct2012 Fixed lead-space in Chapter by omitting " ".
--18Oct2012 Fixed lead-space in Chapter/Title as end " " of Authors/Date/...
--19Oct2012 Put HISTORY comments to log major changes (not typos).
--19Oct2012 Fixed extra dot ".." in Title by omitting at end of "tcommon=...".
--19Oct2012 For pages, put &nbsp in "p.&nbsp;" etc.
--19Oct2012 Enhanced "pages=" to detect lone page as "p." else "pp." prefix.
--19Oct2012 Fixed to show "." after Periodical name (work, newspaper...).
--19Oct2012 Fixed web-link to have spaces "[...  Archived] from the original".
--19Oct2012 Fixed to show ";" between authors & coauthors.
--19Oct2012 Fixed to omit extra "." after coauthors.
--20Oct2012 Fixed COinS data to not urlencode all, as "ctx_ver=Z39.88-2004"
--20Oct2012 Fixed COinS to not end as "&" but use lead "&rft...=" form.
--20Oct2012 Fixed COinS to not url.encode page's "rfr_id=..." pagename.
--20Oct2012 Fixed COinS data when "web" to default to rft.genre "book".
--05Nov2012 Add a span wrapper even when there is no Ref parameter
--15Feb2013 Added Agency for "agency=xx".
--19Feb2013 Put NOTES comments to explain module operation.
--19Feb2013 Copied as Module:Citation/CS1 to alter to match wp:CS1 form.
--19Feb2013 Changed OrigYear to use [__] for CS1 style.
--19Feb2013 Fixed to not show duplicate Publisher/Agency.
--19Feb2013 Moved page-number parameters to after final date.
--19Feb2013 Fixed to not put double-dots after title again.
--20Feb2013 Changed to omit dot "." if already ends with dot.
--20Feb2013 If class "journal" shows Publisher after Periodical/Series.
--20Feb2013 Shifted Format to after Language, and Others after Volume.
--20Feb2013 Set AccessDate + <span class="reference-accessdate">
--20Feb2013 Fixed url when deadurl=no.
--20Feb2013 Added sepc for separator character between parameters.
--20Feb2013 Put "OCLC" for "Online Computer Library Center".
--20Feb2013 Fix empty "authorlink=" as person.link ~= "".
--20Feb2013 Added space after AuthorSep & AuthorNameSep.
--21Feb2013 Added args.contributor (was missing parameter).
--21Feb2013 Fixed EditorSep (was misspelled "EdithorSep").
--21Feb2013 Set OCinSdata.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book"
--21Feb2013 Checked to omit blank codes (asin= | doi= etc.).
--21Feb2013 Set enddot to end line if not config.CitationClass "citation".
--21Feb2013 Fixed to show "issn=x" as the ISSN code.
--21Feb2013 Fixed to show "id=x" after Zbl code.
--21Feb2013 Changed to omit double-dot before date when already dot.
--21Feb2013 Order config.CitationClass "citation": Volume, Issue, Publisher.
--21Feb2013 Put warning "Bad DOI (expected "10."..)" in DOI result.
--21Feb2013 Automatically unbolded volume+comma when > 4 long.
--21Feb2013 Changed to allow lowercase "asin-tld".
--22Feb2013 Fixed ref=harv to extract Year from Date.
--22Feb2013 Set Harvard refer. span id if config.CitationClass "citation".
--22Feb2013 Fixed config.CitationClass "citation" as span class="citation".
--22Feb2013 Capitalized "Archived/Retrieved" only when sepc is dot ".".
--23Feb2013 Fixed author editor for "in" or "In" and put space after sepc.
--23Feb2013 Changed to omit dot in "et al." when sepc is "." separator.
--23Feb2013 Fixed "author1-first" to also get args.given or args.given1.
--23Feb2013 Fixed args.article to set Title, after Periodical is Title.
--23Feb2013 Fixed to allow blank Title (such as "contribution=mytitle").
--23Feb2013 Fixed double-dot ".." at end of Editors list
--26Feb2013 Moved "issue=" data to show before "page=".
--26Feb2013 Moved "type=" data to show after "format=".
--26Feb2013 For "pmc=" link, omitted suffix "/?tool=pmcentrez".
--27Feb2013 For coauthors, omitted extra separator after authors.
--27Feb2013 For date, allowed empty date to use month/day/year.
--27Feb2013 Fixed double-dot ".." at end of authors/coauthors list.
--27Feb2013 Reset editor suffix as ", ed." when date exists.
--27Feb2013 Removed duplicate display of "others=" data.
--27Feb2013 Removed parentheses "( )" around "department" TitleNote.
--05Mar2013 Moved Language to follow Periodical or Series.
--05Mar2013 Fixed Edition to follow Series or Volume.
--05Mar2013 Fixed class encyclopaedia to show article as quoted Chapter.
--05Mar2013 Fixed class encyclopaedia to show page as "pp." or "p.".
--07Mar2013 Changed class encyclopaedia to omit "( )" around publisher.
--07Mar2013 Fixed end double-dot by string.sub(idcommon,-1,-1) was "-1,1".
--13Mar2013 Removed enddot "." after "quote=" parameter.
--13Mar2013 Changed config.CitationClass "news" to use "p." page format.
--13Mar2013 Fixed missing "location=" when "web" or "encyclopaedia".
--14Mar2013 Fixed end double-dot after book/work title.
--14Mar2013 Fixed double-dot before "p." or "pp." page number.
--14Mar2013 Fixed config.CitationClass "book" to use p./pp. page.
--16Mar2013 Changed hyphens to dashes.
--17Mar2013 Replaced all calls to z.mw.url with calls to mw.uri builtins.
--17Mar2013 More changes & fix fatal bugs added recently.
--14Mar2013 Reverted to 14Mar2013 to undo Script errors in 16/17Mar. --
--End

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