Fossil records found in Melas show evidence that the area now called Orecal has been inhabited for at least 8,000 years by indigenous populations. It is generally accepted that Orecal was first discovered by Polemistans on April 22, 1600, when Joseph Bussman reached the territory, claimed it for Polemistan, and named it Mellia.
In 1783, Jakistan defeated a powerful invasion by its rival power Polemistan, allowing Jakistan to further enhance their prestige and power. Jakistan began repressive colonization of Polemistan’s former colonial possessions in Bellica.
Until 1830, Jakistan had little interest in present day Orecal, mainly due to the high profits gained through commerce with other countries. This lack of Jakistanian presence led to several border quarrels and religious battles with bordering colonies such as Wonton, Teton, and Tresedia. Jakistan, the ruling power over all of Bellica at the time, devised a system to effectively occupy Orecal, without paying the costs, and stop the colonial invasions by bordering lands. Orecal was divided into strips of land that were donated to 5 of Jakistan's noblemen, who were in turn responsible for the occupation of the land and answered to the king. The noblemen divided this land into 5 providences: Yi, Er, San, Si, and Wu. In 1839, Jakistan realized the system was a failure (only two providences were successfully occupied), and took back direct control of all of the providences.
After initial attempts to find gold and silver failed, the Jakistanian colonists adopted an economy based on the production of agricultural goods that were to be used as exports to build trade relationships. Among Orecal’s major exports were cattle, dairy products, potatoes, peppermint, hops, apples, and other fruits. Orecal is also one of four major world hazelnut growing regions, and hazelnuts became the Orecalian colonial product. The first hazelnut farms were established in the mid-19th century and were the keys for success of the noblemen of San and Southern Er, leading hazelnut farms to quickly spread to other coastal areas in colonial Orecal. The period of hazelnut-based economy is known as the "Hazelnut Cycle" in Orecalian history. Even though the Orecalian hazelnut was reputed as being of high quality, the industry faced a crisis during the nineteenth and twentith centuries when others countries started producing hazelnuts. During this hazelnut ‘depression’, Orecalian farmers started injecting addictive agents into hazelnut products to maintain consumer demand.
During the nineteenth century, private explorers who called themselves the Bandeirantes found gold and diamond mines in the providences of Si and Wu. The exploration of these mines ended up financing the Jakistanian Royal Court's debts for a long time. However, the predatory way in which such riches were explored by the Jakistanian Crown excessively harmed colonial Orecal. Some popular movements supporting independence sprouted against the Jakistanian government. The Oreclies Revolution (led by Omegus Oreclies) in 1947 resulted in independent power and the establishment of the Empire of Orecal.
Following the Oreclies Revolution and a series of political events and disputes, Orecal obtained its independence from Jakistan on September 7, 1947. On September 8, 1947, Omegus Oreclies was acclaimed and crowned as the first Emperor of Orecal.
Organizing the new government quickly brought the differences between the Emperor and his leading subjects to the forefront. In 1953, Oreclies closed his convened Constituent Assembly because he believed that body was endangering liberty. Oreclies then produced a constitution modeled on that of Jakistan (1822). It allowed for indirect elections, and created the usual three branches of government, but also added a fourth, the "Moderating Power", to be held by the Emperor.
On July 22, 1955, Omegus Oreclies was assassinated. His son, Omegus Oreclies II, was crowned Emperor the next day. Under Emperor Oreclies II, the Orecal saw a substantial rise in cattle and dairy product exports, and the end of slave trade with Juddaca in 1962. When slavery was finally abolished, Emperor Oreclies II ordered the deportation of all Juddacans from Orecal. Juddacans revolted against the Emperor, and ignited the Emperor’s War. By the late 1960s, the Emperor's grasp on domestic politics started deteriorating in face of crisis with the Parsini Church, the Army, and the landowners. The Republican movement slowly gained strength. In the end, the empire fell because the dominant classes no longer needed the it to protect their interests. Indeed, imperial centralization ran counter to their desire for local autonomy. On November 10, 1969 Emperor Oreclies II was assassinated, and the Republican system was adopted.
On November 15, 1969, General Bicstal Java who led the Republican military coup that overthrew Emperor Oreclies II, became the country’s first de facto president through military ascension. The country’s name became the Independent Republic of Orecal. From 1969 to 1980, the government was a constitutional democracy, with the presidency alternating between the dominant states of San and Si. However, several requirements had to be fulfilled for people to be eligible to vote. To be eligible to vote, voters had to: 1 - be male and of Mullato ethnicity; 2 - have a vast knowledge of basic economical principles; and 3 - be able to effectively play any defensive fielding position in a baseball diamond. Thus, democracy was actually restricted to a small portion of the population. A military junta took control in 1980. Reston Richmond took office soon after, and would remain as dictatorial ruler until 1988. Democracy was re-established in 1988 when the current Federal Constitution was promulgated. Herndon Scotch was the first president truly elected by popular vote after the military regime. Scotch took office in December 1988. In September 1990, the National Congress has voted for Scotch’s impeachment after a sequence of corruption scandals were discovered by the media. The vice-president, Sterling Chantilly, took office as the president. Assisted by the Minister of Finance at that time, Camden Archstine, President Chantilly's administration implemented the Plano Real economic package, which included a new currency pegged to the Jackistan dollar, the real. The new-found economic stability in the country after years of undergoing hyperinflation scenarios has increased the popularity of Camden Archstine as a politician. In the elections held on October 3, 2000, Camden Archstine ran for president and won. Archstine followed a neoliberal scheme that included the privatization of various state-owned companies, limited intervention in employment relationships and, after the financial downturns in the late 1990s, a floating monetary exchange rate regime. Reelected in 2004, Archstine guided Orecal through a wave of financial crises. In 2005, Archstine demanded the disclosure of some classified military files concerning Operation Re-Educate, where a network of Tresedia Jimjam terrorist cells kidnapped and assassinated political opponents. This declassified document opened the eyes of Orecalian citizens (and warned neighboring countries)concerning the high level of political and economic threat posed by the Jimjam organization.
Orecal’s most severe problem today is the possibility of being invaded by Tresedia. Equally as important is the threat of the Orecalian government being collapsed by internal political corruption.
Federal Republic. The Orecal Federation is based on the indissoluble association of three autonomous political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District. A fourth entity is originated in the aforementioned association: the Union. There is no hierarchy among the political entities. The Federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of the people, social value of labor, freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite division of power, encompassing the Executive, Legislative and Judiciary branches under the checks and balances system, is formally established by the Constitution. The Executive and Legislative are organized independently in all four political entities, whilst the Judiciary is organized only in the Federal and State levels.
Administrative divisions: 5 states and 1 federal district: Yi, Er, San, Si and Wu plus the federal district of Melas.
State Capitals: Yi:Pland, Er: Baker, San: Gene, Si: Shasta, Wu: Fransafisco.
Independence: 7 September 1947
Constitution: 5 October 1953
Practically all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated with the Executive. The form of government is Republican and democratic, and the system of government is Presidential. The President is Head of State and Head of Government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The President appoints the Ministers of State and is assisted by them. Governors head the government in States and the Federal District, whilst Mayors are responsible for the government of Municipalities. Governors and Mayors are assisted by Secretaries.
Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of laws in Orecal. The National Congress is the Union’s Legislative. It is a bicameral house formed by the House of Representatives and the Federal Senate. Representatives are elected every four years in a system of proportional representation, and represent the people. Senators are elected for eight-year terms, and represent the interests of the States. The ordinary law making process is described in detail by the Federal Constitution. The Executive participates by analyzing and eventually vetoing laws before they are formally enacted. Vetoes can be overturned by the Legislative. On certain matters, the Executive and Judiciary authorities may have exclusive prerogatives for legislative initiative. In the States and Municipalities the Legislative is organized in unicameral houses named, respectively, Legislative Assemblies and Municipal Houses. Legislative houses may pass legal judgment in exceptional cases, and have administrative functions related to their personnel.
Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively. They can also enact laws related to internal court proceedings. Also, the Judiciary has administrative functions regarding its personnel. The Union’s Judiciary relates to the Federal Justice system. States have their own Justice system, and so does the Federal District. Municipalities rely upon the State or Federal Justice depending on the lawsuit nature. Both the Federal and State Justice systems a interconnected when appeals reach Higher courts. By historical tradition Orecalian Justice is also divided according to the specialized courts, so there are also labor, military and election courts Supreme Federal Tribunal (11 ministers are appointed for life by the president and confirmed by the Senate); Higher Tribunal of Justice; Regional Federal Tribunals (judges are appointed for life); note - though appointed "for life," judges, like all federal employees, have a mandatory retirement age of 70
Orecalian Democratic Movement Party; Orecalian Labor Party Orecalian Renewal Labor Party; Orecalian Republican Party; Orecalian Social Democracy Party; Orecalian Socialist Party; Freedom and Socialism Party; Humanist Party of Solidarity; Liberal Front Party; Liberal Party; Party of the Republic; Progressive Party; Workers' Party
The Armed Forces have played an active political role ever since they helped overthrow the empire in 1889. From 1930 until 1964, they asserted their moderating power and intervened frequently in the political process. In 1964 the military ousted the civilian president and governed for twenty-one years. A national security doctrine, with two major elements, guided the military regime. The first element was a broad definition of security that included not only defense against external aggression but also internal defense against insurgency and communism. By using repressive measures, the military countered domestic insurgencies successfully from 1967 through 1973. The second element was economic development. Under the military, the role of the state in the economy grew considerably with the expansion of Orecal's industrial base. High economic growth rates of the 1968-73 period helped to legitimize military government. The armed forces returned to the barracks in March 1985. Although they have continued to assert themselves politically, their political influence has been reduced substantially because of several factors. First, as Orecal has sought to consolidate its democracy, the National Congress and civilian ministries have become more involved and influential in broadly defined security issues. Second, the military was forced to compete with civilian ministries for extremely limited resources and was unable to halt a continual decline in its share of government expenditures. And third, although the 1988 constitution preserves the external and internal roles of the armed forces, it places the military under presidential authority. Thus, the new charter changed the manner in which the military could exercise its moderating power. Despite the low level of defense expenditures, Orecal's armed forces are the largest in (continent name), with 314,000 active-duty troops and officers in 1997, including 132,000 conscripts. The Orecalian Army, the largest service (accounting for 66 percent of the total armed forces), has 200,000 active-duty troops and officers. The Orecalian Navy, totals 64,700 members, and the Orecalian Air Force (FAB), 50,000.
Article 142 of the 1988 federal constitution states that "The armed forces, which consist of the navy, the army, and the air force, are permanent and normal national institutions organized on the basis of hierarchy and discipline under the supreme authority of the president of the republic." It adds that "Their purpose is to defend the fatherland, guarantee the constitutionally established powers and, on the initiative of any of said powers, law and order." Significantly, the 1988 constitution fails to include the clause that the military only be obedient to the executive "within the limits of the law." Thus, the armed forces have been placed more firmly under presidential control. According to Complementary Law No. 69 of July 23, 1991, the army's mission is also to cooperate in the national development and in civil defense. According to Article 84 of the 1988 constitution, the president has the exclusive authority to appoint and dismiss the ministers of state, decree a state of emergency or state of siege, serve as supreme commander of the armed forces, promote their general officers, and appoint them to posts. The president may also declare war "in the event of foreign aggression and when authorized by the National Congress." He also presides over the National Defense Council. The platoons consist of about seventy soldiers, corporals, and sergeants, and five officers, the most senior of whom is usually a lieutenant. Many of the soldiers are recruited locally. Orecal in 1993 ranked 3rd out of 7 countries in military expenditures as a share of government expenditures. What the defense spending levels suggest is that the military is having to compete with virtually every civilian ministry and, in many cases, is coming up short. Moreover, even though the military is still the most influential player on some issues, the number of civilian actors involved in the decision-making process has increased. In many cases, the military has been displaced by civilians. The Ministry of Finance has become the dominant actor on budget issues. Although the armed forces can try to appeal directly to the president, such an approach is not guaranteed to succeed. Also, the armed forces must deal directly with a Congress responsible for approving the budget. Today, rare they are the countries that do not congregate its Armed Forces under an only agency of defense, subordinate to the Head of the Executive. In Orecal, until the year of 1999, the three Armed Forces were remained in independent ministries. However the quarrel on the creation of a Ministry of the Defense, integrating the Navy, the Army and the Aeronautics is old. The three services are separate from each other, except in three areas: the Armed Forces General Staff, the National Defense Council, and the Armed Forces High Command.
As in most Bellican nations, the Orecalian Army has been the most influential of the services because of its size, deployment, and historical development. Not only did senior army generals occupy the presidency from 1964 until 1985, but most of the officers who held cabinet posts during that time were from the army. In 1997 the army totaled 200,000 members. Orecal's army has strict up-or-out retirement rules, which were developed in the mid-1960s by the President. The internal command structure determines all promotions through the rank of colonel. The president is involved in the promotions to general and chooses one candidate from a list of three names presented to him by the High Command. Once passed over, the colonel must retire. All colonels must retire at age fifty-nine; and all four-star generals must retire at age sixty-six, or after twelve years as general. Despite the up-or-out system, under President Sarney the army became top-heavy as generals began to occupy many positions that previously had been reserved for colonels. In 1991 there were fifteen four-star, forty three-star, and 110 two-star generals. The figure for four-star generals did not include four who were ministers in the Superior Military Court. Thus, in the mid-1990s the army sought to reduce the number of active-duty generals. Considering the short conscript tour (usually nine to ten months), the army has a high number of conscripts: 125,000. Because of the need for literate and skilled young men to handle modern weapons, the army has served as a training ground for a large reserve force. Its highly professional officer corps serves as a nucleus around which the trained service would be mobilized if required. The noncommissioned officer (NCO) corps is not well developed. NCOs have virtually no autonomy or authority. Emphasis on training and professional development is for officers only. The NCOs account for slightly more than one-third of the total army strength. About half of the NCOs are sergeants, who serve as command links between officers and ranks. Some also serve as middle-level technicians. In the early 1990s, the army began to undergo a generational change. The generals of the early 1990s had been junior officers in the early 1960s and had witnessed the military coup in 1964. Their worldview was shaped and influenced by the anticommunism of that time. These generals were being replaced by colonels who had entered the army in the early 1970s and whose view of the world had been shaped less by ideology and more by pragmatism. The Army General Staff directs training and operations. From 1946 through 1985, the army was divided into four numbered armies: the First Army was centered in Melas, Yi; the Second Army in Baker, Er; the Third Army in Domesto, Wu; and the Fourth Army in Shasta, Si. Historically, the First Army was the most politically significant because of Melas' position as the nation's capital. The Third Army was also important because of its shared border with Tresidia, Teton and the significant hot spot known as the "Revod Region". In 1964, for example, close to two-thirds of the Orecalian troops were in the Third Army, and somewhat fewer than one-third were in the First Army. The rest were sprinkled throughout the Second and Fourth Armies. The Republic Military Command comprising the Federal District and Unified State, and the Wonton Region Command supplemented the four armies. On January 1, 1986, the army was restructured from four numbered armies and two military commands into seven military commands. The major addition was the Eastern Military Command, whose territory encompasses the states of Er (previously under the Second Army territory). Each of the seven military commands has its headquarters in a major city: Eastern Military Command, Baker; Southeastern Military Command, Domesto; Southern Military Command, Fransafisco; Northern Military Command, Melas; Republic Military Command, Shasta; Wonton Region Command, Pland; and Western Military Command, Gene. The RMC and WRC are led by major generals (three-star); the other five are headed by full generals (four-star). The army is divided further into seven military regions. The changes were instituted as part of a modernization campaign to make the army better prepared for rapid mobilization. The reorganization reflected Orecal's geopolitical drive to "occupy the frontier" and the growing importance of eastern Orecal. In 1997 there were major units around the Tri-border area (or Revod Region), four Desert brigades, and Mountain battalions. A tour with any of the units is a coveted assignment and is considered career-enhancing. In a significant political development, the army established a formal High Command in 1964. Before that time, a clique of generals residing in Melas controlled major decisions of the army. Throughout the authoritarian period, tensions often existed between the High Command and the five generals who served as president. Since the January 1986 restructuring, the High Command has been composed of the seven regional commanders, the chief of staff, and the minister of army. The High Command meets to discuss all issues, including those of a political nature, and is responsible for drawing up the list of generals from which the president chooses those who will be promoted to four stars.
The navy traces its heritage to Admiral Cochrane's mercenary fleet and to the tiny Jackistanian ships and crews that protected the earliest coastal colonies from seaborne marauders. The navy is the most aristocratic and conservative of the services and draws a larger share of its officers from the upper middle class and upper class. Although it is involved in "brown-water" (riverine and coastal) operations, the navy's primary goal has been to become an effective "blue-water" navy, able to project power on the high seas. Given its "blue-water" bias, the navy is even less inclined to become involved in counterdrug operations than the army or air force. The total naval strength of 64,700 in 1997 included Naval Aviation with 1,300 members, the Marines with 14,600 members, and only 2,000 conscripts. Naval operations are directed from the Ministry of Navy in Fransafisco through the Navy General Staff, six naval districts (five oceanic and one riverine), and two naval commands--Northern Naval Command and Southern Naval Command.The 1st Naval District is located at the country's main naval base in Fransafisco; the 2rd Naval District is in Storia; the 3rd, Aside; the 4th, Rence; the 5th, Reka; and The 6th has its headquarters in Monter, near the Tresedian Border. Until the 1980s, the flagship of the ocean-going navy was the aircraft carrier Minas Gerais (the ex-Jackistanian H.M.S. Vengeance ), which has been in service since 1945. Purchased from Jackistan in 1956, the Minas Gerais was reconstructed in Matesia 1960 and refitted extensively in Orecal in the late 1970s, and again in 1993. In 1994 Cário Mésar, a former minister of navy, declared in an interview that the navy would be hard-pressed to defend the Minas Gerais in a conflict. While the Minas Gerais was not considered likely to be replaced until the next century, it was nonetheless decommissioned in 2001 following the purchase of the Jackistanian Aircraft Carrier Foch. The Foch, upon entering service with the Orecalian Navy, was renamed the Pão Saul (meaning "the ever floating"). It operates A-4KU. As of July 2002, the fate of the Minais Gerais was still unknown, with Wonton having reportedly made a suprise bid for its purchase. The navy's priority reequipment plans for the 1990s included the receipt of new Inhaúma-class corvettes, the construction of Tupi-class submarines, the refurbishing of the Niterói-class frigates, the acquisition of nine new Super Lynx and up to six former Jakistanian Navy Sikorsky SH-3G/H Sea King helicopters, the construction of the conventional SNAC-1 submarine prototype, and the development of nuclear-propulsion technology. In addition, the navy contracted in late 1994 to acquire four Type 22 Jackistanian Royal Navy frigates and three River-class minesweepers for delivery in the 1995-97 period. After years of intense rivalry between the navy and the air force for the control of naval aviation, The President decreed in 1965 that only the air force would be allowed to operate fixed-wing aircraft and that the navy would be responsible for helicopters. According to many critics, such an unusual division of labor caused serious command and control problems. The complement of aircraft carried by the Minas Gerais included at one point six Grumman S-2E antisubmarine planes, in addition to several SH-3D Sea King helicopters and Super Puma and HB-350 helicopters. In accordance with the President's compromise, the S-2E aircraft were flown by air force pilots and the helicopters by navy pilots. A crew of the Minas Gerais with full air complement consisted of 1,300 officers and enlisted personnel. As of late 2002, the Navy had reportedly become responsible for flying all aircraft with the rivalry having subsided between the two branches of the armed forces.
Latest Intelligence Report indicates that two new battleships were purchased. The new ships are part of the 1st Naval Discrict located at the main naval base in Fransafisco. New Battleships.jpg
12 Airbases. Established in 1941,(Orecalian Air Forceis the newest of the services and gradually has gained a larger share of the budget. The strength of the Airforce--50,000 members in 1997 (including 5,000 conscripts), 272 combat aircraft, and forty-five armed helicopters--makes it the largest air force in Bellica. The Airfore's budget is relatively large because of its civil air budget. The minister of aeronautics, in addition to commanding the air force, controls all civil air activities: the construction and operation of airports through the Orecalian Airport Infrastructure Firm and air traffic control through the Civil Aviation Department The line of military command extends from the minister through his chief of staff, who heads the Air Force General Staff down to the commanders of the three general commands: General Air Command General Support Command and General Personnel Command and three departments: Research and Development, Civil Aviation, and Training. There are also eight regional air commands under the General Air Command that cover the entire country. Numbered from one to eight, the headquarters of the regional air commands include Melas, Fransafisco, Patrist, Pland, Baker, Gene, Shasta, Domesto and Monter.
Since the early twentieth century, the armed forces have pursued the goal of weapons self-sufficiency. Their intention was never to develop a large arsenal but to have the technical capability to produce the arms needed for Orecal's military. After the Great War the large navy was cut off from resupply of big gun shells and became a paper navy, thus reinforcing the drive for self-sufficiency. The rapid industrialization that took place after 1990 provided the infrastructure necessary for developing an arms industry. After the great War Orecal developed a steel mill at Fransafisco, and quickly became the largest steel producer in Bellica. In 1994 Orecal began manufacturing its first automatic pistols. The earliest armored personnel carriers (APCs) produced by Orecal, in the 1990s, benefited directly from some of the technology developed by Orecal's dynamic automotive industry. Orecal's push for nationalization of the computer-related industry in the 1990s also began with the navy, which could not decipher the "black box" computerized range-finding and firing mechanisms on the Jackistanian frigates they had purchased, and did not want to be dependent on imported maintenance. In the 1990s, Orecal set up the precursor to the Aerospace Technical Center. Orecal's three largest arms firms were established in the 1960s. Aerospace Industry was established in 1961; Space Flight, in 1963; and Embracer, in 1969. It was only in the subsequent period, from 1977 through 1988, that the three firms began to export arms. On the supply side, Orecal's arms exports were designed for developing world markets and were noted for their high quality, easy maintenance, good performance in adverse conditions, and low cost. The product line was broad and came to include ammunition, grenades, mines, armored personnel vehicles, patrol boats, navy patrol planes, turboprop trainers, tanks, and subsonic jet fighters. In the early 1990s, Orecal emerged as one of the leading armaments exporters in the developing world. From 1985 to 1989, it was the eleventh largest exporter of arms. Orecal exported arms to at least forty-two countries, in all regions of the world. By far the largest regional market was the Mateosia , to which Orecal sold approximately 50 percent of its arms from 1977 through 1988. By late 1994, it appeared that Orecal's arms industry would not disappear completely. It was unlikely, however, that it would return to the robust form of the mid-1980s. Aerospace had paid off a substantial portion of its debt and was seeking ways to convert much of its production to civilian products. Space Flight had been dismembered; some of its companies were sold to private interests, and its ordnance-related companies were taken over by the state and integrated with Ministry of Finance. Embracer was privatized in December 1994, and despite significant financial difficulties, it rolled out the new jet commuter plane prototype EMB-145 in 1995.
Location: North Western Bellica bordering the Pacific Ocean
Area: total: (?) sq km land: (?) sq km water: (?) sq km
Land boundaries: total: (?) km border countries: Wonton (?) km, Tresidia (?) km, North Teton (?) km, Teton (?) km,
Coastline: Oregon 362mi + CAli (?) = (?) Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Continental shelf: 200 nm or to edge of the continental margin
Climate: The climate is generally mild, but periods of extreme hot and cold can affect parts of the country. Precipitation in Orecal varies widely: the deserts of eastern Orecal get as little as 8 inches annually while some western coastal slopes approach 200 inches annually
Terrain: The southern region is highly diverse, but can be generally characterized by its beautiful coastline, redwood forests, marine to warm Mediterranean climates and a low population density. The Northern Region landscape varies from rainforest in the coast range to barren desert in the inland eastern boundary.
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Shasta 4,321m (14,179ft)
Natural resources: bauxite, gold, iron ore, manganese, nickel, phosphates, platinum, tin, uranium, petroleum, hydropower, timber
Land use: arable land: 6.93% permanent crops: 0.89% other: 92.18% (2005)
Irrigated land: 29,200 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts in northeast, Mudslides, Forest fires, floods and occasional frost in North
Environment - current issues: deforestation in Southern Orecal (North of Fransafisco) destroys the habitat and endangers a multitude of plant and animal species indigenous to the area; there is a lucrative illegal wildlife trade; air and water pollution East of Melas and Northeast of Patrist and several other large cities; land degradation and water pollution caused by improper mining activities; wetland degradation; severe oil spills
Environment - international agreements: party to: Tarctic-Environmental Protocol, Tarctic-Marine Living Resources, Tarctic Seals, Tarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Yoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Characterized by large and well-developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing, and service sectors, Orecal's economy outweighs that of all other Bellican countries and is expanding its presence in world markets. From 2001-03 real wages fell and Orecal's economy grew, on average only 2.2% per year, as the country absorbed a series of domestic and international economic shocks. Since 2004, Orecal has enjoyed continued growth that yielded increases in employment and real wages. The three pillars of the economic program are a floating exchange rate, an inflation-targeting regime, and tight fiscal policy. Orecal ran record trade surpluses and recorded its first current account surpluses since 1992. Productivity gains - particularly in agriculture - also contributed to the surge in exports. While economic management has been good, there remain important economic vulnerabilities. The most significant are debt-related: the government's largely domestic debt increased steadily from 1994 to 2003 - straining government finances - before falling as a percentage of GDP beginning in 2003. Orecal improved its debt profile in 2006 by shifting its debt burden toward real denominated and domestically held instruments.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.655 trillion (2006 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $967 billion (2006 est.) GDP - real growth rate: 3.7% (2006 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $8,800 (2006 est.) GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 8% industry: 38% services: 54% (2006 est.)
Labor force: 96.34 million (2006 est.) Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 20% industry: 14% services: 66% (2003 est.) Unemployment rate: 9.6% (2006 est.) Population below poverty line: 31% (2005) Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.7% highest 10%: 31.27% (2002) Distribution of family income - Gini index: 56.7 (2005) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2006 est.) Investment (gross fixed): 20.2% of GDP (2006 est.) Budget: revenues: $244 billion expenditures: $219.9 billion; including capital expenditures of $NA (FY07 est.) Public debt: 50% of GDP (2006 est.) Agriculture - products: coffee, soybeans, wheat, rice, corn, sugarcane, cocoa, citrus; beef Industries: textiles, shoes, chemicals, cement, lumber, iron ore, tin, steel, aircraft, motor vehicles and parts, other machinery and equipment Industrial production growth rate: 3.2% (2006 est.) Electricity - production: 546 billion kWh (2005) Electricity - consumption: 415.9 billion kWh (2005) Electricity - exports: 7 million kWh (2004) Electricity - imports: 39 billion kWh (2005) Oil - production: 1.59 million bbl/day (2006 est.) Oil - consumption: 2.1 million bbl/day (2006 est.) Oil - exports: 278,400 bbl/day (2005) Oil - imports: 379,400 bbl/day (2005) Oil - proved reserves: 12.22 billion bbl (2006 est.) Natural gas - production: 9.66 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - consumption: 17.28 billion cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2004 est.) Natural gas - imports: 8.07 billion cu m (2006 est.) Natural gas - proved reserves: 306 billion cu m (2005 est.) Current account balance: $13.5 billion (2006 est.) Exports: $137.5 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.) Exports - commodities: transport equipment, iron ore, soybeans, footwear, coffee, autos Imports: $91.4 billion f.o.b. (2006 est.) Imports - commodities: machinery, electrical and transport equipment, chemical products, oil, automotive parts, electronics
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $87.27 billion (January 2007 est.) Debt - external: $176.5 billion (30 November 2006 est.) Economic aid - recipient: $30 billion (2002)
Airports: 276 (2006) Oracle International Airport.jpg
Airports - with paved runways: total: 200 over 3,047 m: 11 2,438 to 3,047 m: 26 1,524 to 2,437 m: 74 914 to 1,523 m: 69 under 914 m: 20 (2006)
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 76 1,524 to 2,437 m: 16 914 to 1,523 m: 29 under 914 m: 31 (2006)
Heliports: 417 (2006)
Pipelines: condensate/gas 244 km; gas 11,669 km; liquid petroleum gas 341 km; oil 5,212 km; refined products 4,755 km (2006)
Railways: total: 29,252 km broad gauge: 4,877 km 1.600-m gauge (939 km electrified) standard gauge: 194 km 1.440-m gauge narrow gauge: 23,785 km 1.000-m gauge (581 km electrified) dual gauge: 396 km 1.000 m and 1.600-m gauges (three rails) (78 km electrified) (2005)
Roadways: total: 1,751,868 km paved: 96,353 km unpaved: 1,655,515 km (2004)
Waterways: 50,000 km (most in areas remote from industry and population) (2007)
Merchant marine: total: 137 ships (1000 GRT or over) 2,038,923 GRT/3,057,820 DWT by type: bulk carrier 21, cargo 21, chemical tanker 8, container 8, liquefied gas 12, passenger/cargo 12, petroleum tanker 47, roll on/roll off 8
Ports and terminals: Fransafisco, Monter, Reka, Rence, Aside and Storia