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Company and product/service/technology (John)

Evaluate the product/service/technology to assess its suitability for international expansion focusing on whether the product/service will need any adaptation to the global market. Evaluate the company’s capability of exporting the product/ service/ technology.

Resources:

Waldman, Cliff. China's Demographic Destiny and its Economic Implications. Business Economics, October, 2005.

Williams-Sonoma has double-digit yearly gains. Furniture/Today, 3/27/2006, Vol. 30 Issue 29, p58-58.

Sonoma packs up Hold Everything. By: Tierney, Jim. Multichannel Merchant, Feb2006, Vol. 2 Issue 2.

SWEET STOWAWAYS. By: MCCONNON, AILI. Business Week, 8/7/2006 Issue 3996, p84-84. (Describes items sold in specialty containers.)

Plastic packaging demand grows despite swelling prices. Purchasing, 7/13/2006 Chemicals Edition, Vol. 135 Issue 10. There has been growth in demand for plastic packaging in the U.S. despite its increasing prices. One of the factors that drive the sustained growth in demand for plastic packaging products from suppliers is Internet retail sales drive deliveries of small packages to households. Analyst Matthew Warren of Morningstar is optimistic that suppliers will achieve 6% compound annual sales growth over the next five years from 2006.


Huang, Pingsha; Zhang, Xiuli; Deng, Xingdi. Survey and analysis of public environmental awareness and performance in Ningbo, China: a case study on household electrical and electronic equipment. Journal of Cleaner Production, Aug2006, Vol. 14 Issue 18, p1635-1643

Eight Supertrends Shaping the Future of Business. By: Albrecht, Karl. Futurist, Sep/Oct2006, Vol. 40 Issue 5, p25-29

Household Appliances Industry Profile: China. Household Appliances Industry Profile: China, Jul2006, p1, 20p; Abstract: Presents a profile of the Household Appliances industry in China

Ready for warfare in the aisles. Economist, 8/5/2006, Vol. 380 Issue 8489, p59-61, 3p, 1 chart, 1 graph, 1c; Abstract: The article reports on foreign and domestic retailing in China. "Operating profitably in poorer markets often means switching to smaller stores with a narrower range. Xu Lingling, chief financial officer at Lianhua, says that whereas big foreign players, such as Carrefour, have taken top sites in large cities, Chinese chains may be better suited to mid-sized towns where productivity is lower. And these may suit a different approach--such as the franchising of McDonald's, KFC and Tupperware, which lowers the initial level of capital investment. Avon is going further: having finally received permission to resume direct sales in February, the American cosmetics group has already recruited over 114,000 sales agents."


Housewares & Specialties Industry Profile: Global. Housewares & Specialties Industry Profile: Global, Apr2006, p1

2006 Personnel Trainer: Kitchen Storage. Gourmet Retailer, Feb2006, Vol. 27 Issue 2, p68-68

Tupperware taking unconventional road. By: Sun, Nina Ying. Plastics News, 11/14/2005, Vol. 17 Issue 37, p8-8,

Kitchen Storage Products. Gourmet Retailer, Feb2005, Vol. 26 Issue 2, p54-54, 1p

Kitchen Storage Products. Gourmet Retailer, Aug2005, Vol. 26 Issue 8, p94-94

Tupperware to outsource half its line. By: DeRosa, Angie. Plastics News, 4/26/2004, Vol. 16 Issue 8, p1-19, 2p

The king of plastic. (cover story) Corporate Finance, May2001 Issue 198, p18

Plastics sitting pretty--and chic. (cover story) By: Pryweller, Joseph. Plastics News, 04/26/99, Vol. 11 Issue 10, p1

Lifestyles in the kitchen. By: Chanil, Debra. Discount Merchandiser, Dec95, Vol. 35 Issue 12, p64

Splashes of color liven storage. Discount Store News, 1/16/95, Vol. 34 Issue 2, p33

When Does Culture Matter? Effects of Personal Knowledge on the Correction of Culture-Based Judgments. By: Briley, Donnel A; Aaker, Jennifer L. Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), Aug2006, Vol. 43 Issue 3, p395-408


When Your Contract Manufacturer Becomes Your Competitor. By: Arruñada, Benito; Vázquez, Xosé H.. Harvard Business Review, Sep2006, Vol. 84 Issue 9, p135-144, 9p, 1 chart, 2c Abstract: PC maker Lenovo started out as a distributor of equipment made by IBM and other companies; now it has formed a joint venture with IBM and will eventually affix its own logo to its computers. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation (SAIC) started out manufacturing vehicles for Volkswagen and GM; now it's preparing to sell its own cars in China, Europe, and North America. Lenovo and SAIC represent a host of formerly anonymous makers of brand-name products that are breaking out of their defined roles and pushing the brands themselves aside. In this article, the authors explore the double-edged relationships original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) forge with their contract manufacturers (CMs). On the one hand, an OEM can reduce its labor costs, free up capital, and improve worker productivity by outsourcing all the manufacturing of a product. The company can then concentrate on value-adding activities--research and development, product design, and marketing, for instance. On the other hand, an OEM that retains a contract manufacturer may find itself immersed in a melodrama replete with promiscuity (the ambitious CM pursues liaisons with other OEMs), infidelity (the OEM's retailers and distributors shift their business to the upstart CM), and betrayal (the brazen CM transmits the OEM's intellectual property to the OEM's rivals or keeps it for itself when the contract is up). OEMs cannot simply terminate their outsourcing arrangements--they need contract manufacturers in order to keep specializing, adding value, and staying competitive. But OEMs can manage these relationships so that they don't become weak or the CMs too strong. Doing so requires modesty about revealing trade secrets; caution about whom one consorts with; and a judicious degree of intimacy,loyalty, and generosity toward partners and customers.


For Sponsors, China's 2008 Olympics Have Already Begun. By: Fowler, Geoffrey A.; Lee, Wendy; Fong, Mei. Wall Street Journal - Eastern Edition, 8/8/2006, Vol. 248 Issue 32, pB1-B2, 2p, 2c, 2bw; Abstract: The article focuses on sponsors of China's 2008 Olympics. Numerous advertisements feature Chinese Olympic hurdler Liu Xiang, who has landed multiple endorsements. China's market is so vast that the 2008 Olympic Games are drawing a growing field of corporate competitors. By the time the Games take place, reckons Sir Martin Sorrell of WPP Group PLC, China could be the second-largest advertising market in the world, behind the U.S. and ahead of Japan. Already thirty-six companies have acquired marketing rights to the 2008 Games.;

Unlocking the Middle Kingdom. By: Heilemann, John. Business 2.0, Aug2006, Vol. 7 Issue 7, p44-46

Country or Region (Team)

Choose the country or region that you are interested in exporting the product/service/technology to. Make sure that the country is not embargoed. If your company is already operating in foreign markets, choose a country where you do not have existing business or operations.


Home Country (Binu)

Evaluate the limitations imposed by the home country or the incentives provided by the government in dealing with your chosen country. For instance, technology transfers to China can face various government-imposed restrictions compared to exporting the same technology to Germany.

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Host Country (Brian)

a. Examine the limitations and incentives. Exports to Mexico may be duty free whereas exports to China may be subject to varying degrees of tariffs depending on the type of product. Capital equipment may be duty free while consumer products such as butter and toothpaste have tariffs ranging up to 300%.

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b. Suitability of your product/service/technology to the host country

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Investment Climate (Patty)

* Look at the difficulty of getting the money out of the country and the form (dividends, loan repayment, management fees, or interest payments) in which it can be taken out. This will help you decide ahead of time whether you should structure your investment in form of a loan, joint venture capital, management fees, or foreign direct investment

Info from World Bank Protecting Investors in China The table below provides a full breakdown of how the disclosure, director liability, and shareholder suits indexes are calculated in China.

Protecting Investors Data (2005) Indicator Disclosure Index 10 What corporate body provides legally sufficient approval for the transaction? (0-3; see notes) 3 Immediate disclosure to the public and/or shareholders (0-2; see notes) 2 Disclosures in published periodic filings (0-2; see notes) 2 Disclosures by Mr. James to board of directors (0-2; see notes) 2 Requirement that an external body review the transaction before it takes place (0=no, 1=yes) 1 Director Liability Index 1 Plaintiff's ability to hold James liable for damage to the company (0-2; see notes) 0 Plaintiff's ability to hold the approving body liable for damage to the company. (0-2; see notes) 0 Plaintiff's ability to rescind the transaction (0-2; see notes) 0 Mr. James pays loss/damages caused to Buyer (0=no, 1=yes) 0 Mr. James repays personal profits made from the transaction (0=no, 1=yes) 1 Fines and jail available against James (0=no, 1=yes) 0 Ability of shareholders to sue derivatively or directly for damage to Buyer as a result of the transaction (0-1; see notes) 0 Shareholder Suits Index 2 Documents available to the plaintiff from the defendant and witnesses during trail (0-4; see notes) 0 Ability of plaintiffs to directly question the defendant and witnesses during trial (0-2; see notes) 1 Plaintiff can request categories of documents from the defendant without identifying specific ones (0=no, 1=yes) 0 Shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer’s shares can request an inspector investigate the transaction (0=no, 1=yes) 0 Standard of proof for civil suit is lower than that for a criminal case (0=no, 1=yes) 1 Shareholders owning 10% or less of Buyer’s shares can inspect transaction documents before filing suit (0=no, 1=yes) 0 Investor Protection Index 4.3 Notes:

Extent of Disclosure Index

What corporate body provides legally sufficient approval for the transaction? 0=CEO or managing director alone; 1=shareholders or board of directors vote and Mr. James can vote; 2=board of directors votes and Mr. James cannot vote; 3 = shareholders vote and Mr. James cannot vote

Immediate disclosure to the public and/or shareholders 0=none; 1=disclosure on the transaction only; 2=disclosure on the transaction and Mr. James' conflict of interest

Disclosures in published periodic filings 0=none; 1=disclosure on the transaction only; 2=disclosure on the transaction and Mr. James' conflict of interest

Disclosures by Mr. James to board of directors 0=none; 1=existence of a conflict without any specifics; 2= full disclosure of all material facts

Director Liability Index

Plaintiff's ability to hold James liable for damage to the company 0= Mr. James is not liable or liable only if he acted fraudulently or in bad faith; 1= Mr. James is liable if he influenced the approval or was negligent; 2= Mr. James is liable if the transaction was unfair, oppressive or prejudicial to minority shareholders

Plaintiff's ability to hold the approving body liable for damage to the company 0=members of the approving body are either not liable or liable only if they acted fraudulently or in bad faith; 1=liable for negligence in the approval of the transaction; 2=liable if the transaction is unfair, oppressive, or prejudicial to minority shareholders

Plaintiff's ability to rescind the transaction 0=rescission is unavailable or available only in case of Seller's fraud or bad faith; 1=available when the transaction is oppressive or prejudicial to minority shareholders; 2=available when the transaction is unfair or entails a conflict of interest

Ability of shareholders to sue derivatively or directly for damage to Buyer as a result of the transaction 0=not available; 1=direct or derivative suit available for shareholders holding 10% of share capital or less

Shareholder Suits Index

Documents available to the plaintiff from the defendant and witnesses during trail Score 1 each for (1) information that the defendant has indicated he intends to rely on for his defense; (2) information that directly proves specific facts in the plaintiff’s claim; (3) any information that is relevant to the subject matter of the claim; and (4) any information that may lead to the discovery of relevant information.

Ability of plaintiffs to directly question the defendant and witnesses during trial 0=no; 1=yes, with prior approval by the court of the questions posed; 2=yes, without prior approval

http://www.doingbusiness.org/ExploreTopics/ProtectingInvestors/Details.aspx?economyid=42


* Political stability. This will help you decide whether you should build manufacturing facilities in the country, export, or transfer your technology in form of manufacturing contracts or licensing depending on the risk

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* Economic performance. This factor determines how much you can sell unless your product is economy independent such as agricultural products and military weapons

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* Legal environment. You want to determine if there are discriminatory regulations that would end up tilting the business environment, product liability, work place working conditions, environmental regulations, etc. In addition, determine if there is any exposure to your firm regarding the legal and regulatory environment at the local and provincial/state levels as well

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* Cultural aspects. Important for human resource management, advertising and promotion, product names, packaging and labeling, etc.

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* Distributive factors. Look at the distribution system-how you can get the product to the consumer

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* Labor factors-the quantity and skill level of the workers. Low levels of skilled labor mean that you will need to train your labor or simply employ expatriates-high labor costs

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* Social-economic forces. How your target market is segmented. Any nationalism-by local campaigns, etc.

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