Please note that it is very important to distinguish between all the lexical units given below, for all of them bear different shades of meaning and in some cases may simply misrepresent the facts.
Use the proper equivalent
Question, problem, issue, matter, subject, item, topic, theme
Question is a specific subject, especially a difficult political problem, that has been discussed for a long time in order to decide what to do about it:
Politicians have been discussing the Irish question for years now.
Problem is a situation that causes difficulty and needs to be dealt with:
The main problem is unemployment.
Issue is a subject or problem that is often discussed or argued about, especially a social or political matter that affects or interests a lot of people:
The President is to choose a few key issues on which to concentrate.
Matter is a subject that people disagree about or are concerned about, and that needs to be considered and discussed in order to deal with it or find an answer:
The first item on the agenda today is the matter of public transportation.
Subject is what you are talking about or writing about in a conversation, discussion, book, film, work of art etc:
The President has his own views on the subject.
An item is a report or article in a newspaper or magazine, or on television or radio:
There were several interesting items in today's newspaper.
Topic is a subject that people like to talk about and give their opinions on, especially because it is interesting, important, or in the news a lot
Politics is his favourite topic of conversation.
Theme is the main idea or subject of a book, poem, film, speech etc:
Guilt and punishment is the theme of the story.
Suggest, recommend, propose, put forward, submit, present, tender
Suggest (that/doing sth/sth/):
1) to put forward a plan or idea for someone to think about:
The chairman suggested that the two parties should meet again the following day. Yulia Tymoshenko suggested dissolution of Parliament.
2) (sb for sth) to recommend someone as a suitable person for a job or official position:
He was suggested for the vacant directorship.
3) if one thing suggests another, it implies it or makes you think that it might be the case:
Earlier reports suggested that a meeting would take place on Sunday.
1) (sth/that) to officially suggest a course of action after discussing or considering the situation carefully:
The committee recommended a change in the law. We strongly recommend that the incident be reported to the chairman.
2) (sb) to suggest someone you know personally as suitable for a job or position:
He recommended his son for the position of a lawyer.
1) (that/sth) to suggest sth like a plan or idea for people to think about and decide upon:
I propose we continue the meeting tomorrow.
2) to formally suggest someone for an official position:
We would like to propose Mr. X the position of party chairman.
(!) Please be careful with 'to propose to sb' for it means an offer of marriage :)
Put forward - to suggest plans, proposals etc, especially in order to start discussions about some thing that needs to be decided:
The United Nations has put forward a peace plan that will form the basis for discussions.
Submit (proposal, report, or request to sb) - to offer something in writing, such as a proposal, report, or plan, so that an official person or group can consider it and decide whether to accept it:
We have submitted proposals for a new pay structure to the government.
Present - to offer something to an official group, especially by going to them and explaining your ideas so that they can decide whether to accept them:
We presented three options to the unions for discussion.
Note: if you present someone or something in a particular way, you describe them in that way:
The government has presented these changes as major reforms.
Tender - if you tender something such as a suggestion, your resignation, or money, you formally offer or present it:
He quickly tendered his resignation.
Claim, state, announce, declare, express, make/issue a statement, report, remark
They all have the same meaning: to state something publicly or officially. However, there are a lot of peculiarities one should be aware of:
- If you say that someone claims that something is true, you mean they say that it is true but you are not sure whether or not they are telling the truth:
The politician claimed that it was all a conspiracy against him.
State that/what/who/how + state a belief/one's position etc:
- to say something clearly and publicly, in words or in writing:
The President states that this matter is of utmost importance.
- to tell people about something that has happened or will happen, by means of a written or spoken public statement:
The Bank announced its intention to reduce its workforce. The newspapers announced that the President has dissolved the Parliament.
Declare that/one's interest/support etc:
- to state officially that you have a particular intention or attitude:
He has repeatedly declared that he will not join a coalition government. The UK declared its support for the new government of Ukraine.
Express sympathy/concern/interest etc:
- to say publicly what your feelings are about something:
The President expressed his sympathy for victims of the riot.
Make a statement + make a statement about:
- to let people know your opinion or give them information about a situation by talking about it in an official or public situation:
After his meeting with the PM, Mr. Yushchenko made the following statement...
Issue a statement -- issue a final/joint/public etc statement:
- if a government, politician, film star etc issues a statement, they make an official public statement on an important subject by writing down the statement and having it read in public or printed in the newspapers:
The Verkhovna Rada is expected to issue a statement in just a few minutes.
- issue a statement through sb = ask sb to read it publicly for you:
Mr. X has issued a statement through his attorney.
- if you report something that has happened, you tell people about it:
The foreign secretary reported that the meeting was canceled.
- if you report on an event or subject, you tell people about it, because it is your job or duty to do so:
Many journalists enter the country to report on political affairs.
- if a company or organization reports information, it officially gives this information to the public:
Obolon' has once again reported record profits.
Remark that/about/on sth:
- if you remark that something is the case, you say that it is the case:
He remarked that the Constitutional Court will not reconsider the case.
(!) Please, pay attention: remark on sth means 'to notice something and then say something about it':
A lot of Ukrainians remark on the poor quality of public transport.
Institute vs. Institution
Please use word "institute" to describe a modern organization set up to perform a particular type of work, especially research or teaching. Please use "in the premises" when referring to the building the organization occupies.
The Congress was conducted in the premises of the Institute of International Relations.
Word "institution" shall be used in meaning of organization only for certain organizations tracing back to 19th century. Please perform Google search or ask others in case of doubt.
Smithsonian Institution The Brookings Institution
For other meanings of the word "institution" see Wikipedia.
Judge v. Justice
Use justice when referring to a definite person working as a judge.
Justice Futey: “I Do Not Think Ukraine Is Moving Towards Emergency State” [headline]
Use judge, when the profession in general is described.
Many judges are corrupt in Ukraine.
In v. Within
The major difference between these two lies in the following:
- in = inside smth/at some place
- within = not beyond the bounds of smth
Journalists were asked to wait in the hall until 6 pm. Journalists were asked to remain within the building (=not to leave the building)
Within a particular length of time means before that length of time has passed.
The resolution will be adopted within a couple of days (=it will not take more than a couple of days)
The resolution will be adopted in a couple of days (=it will take more than just a couple of days)
On, at, in, about
Please cite some good external reference here.
Convocation vs. calling
When translating the Ukrainian noun "скликання", please avoid confusing these two nouns, since they are not synonyms:
Convocation is a meeting or ceremony attended by a large number of people:
The Verkhovna Rada of the fifth convocation.
Calling is a profession or career which someone is strongly attracted to, especially one which involves helping other people (Ukrainian "покликання"):
He followed his calling and became a politician.
Verbs used with certain nouns
The verbs, which are to be used with Legislation:
- to adopt / enact / pass / draft a legislation
- to veto / vote down legislation
- to abrogate / repeal legislation
The verbs, which are to be used with Constitution:
- to adopt / establish / ratify a constitution
- to draw up / frame / write a constitution
- to preserve / safeguard a constitution
- to abrogate / amend a constitution
- to violate a constitution
(please find some proper examples for these)