The Province of Morrowind is one of the nine provinces of Tamriel. Though The Elder Scrolls III: Morrowind takes place on an island separate from the main Province, it is still considered part of Morrowind. However, the Tribunal expansion takes the player to Mournhold, on the mainland.
Morrowind is most notable for the Red Mountain, the highest peak in Tamriel. After the Red Mountain eruption, the province was practically split in two. The eruption tore half the mountain off, leaving a cone-shaped landmass, which became known as Vvardenfell, the setting of TES III: Morrowind.
Initially, the Chimer and Dwemer settled in Morrowind. For a while, they lived in peace with each other. After the time of harmony, the two races broke out into war. Nords (hailing from Skyrim) took over Morrowind; however, the Chimer and Dwemer became allies and drove the Nordic out of Morrowind.
Indoril Nerevar had the Living Gods of Tribunal (Alamexia, Vivec and Sotha Sil) in his advisory capacity. After the Betrayal of the Tribunal, Morrowind's ancestor worship was diverted to the Tribunal Temple.
Emperor Tiber Septim (who later became the Divine Talos) decided to unite all the provinces of Tamriel. Vivec traded the Numidium for independence from the Empire. Throughout, Morrowind has been mainly under Dunmer control, until the awakening of Dagoth Ur.