Robots & computers, in the United Republic of Earth, especially those that do work in some offices, almost all mines, almost all factories, etc, lack true artificial intelligence, and there are certain limitations on the use of such machines so as not to completely usurp the jobs or organic beings. Then there are those robot and computers in the United Republic programmed with genuine A.I., usually to provide advise to organic beings or serve them as personal companions or pets. Save for the Golems created by the now-extinct Progenitors (note that subject races of the Golems used their own non-intelligent robots and computers), A.I. for robots and computers was completely unknown in the Known Universe until it was invented on Earth in year 34 B.R. (over 3000 years before the present time, and 34 years before the foundation of the United Republic of Earth in year 1 N.E.). Even so, religious moderates and conservatives in the influential United God Movement prevented A.I.s from receiving widespread acceptance for many years and centuries. A law passed by the United Republic of Earth's Senate in 56 N.E. provided for licensing and registration of any computer or robot that was created, owned, or programmed with artificial intelligence; and banned the use of A.I. machines in the United Republic's military for centuries. Even so, hundreds of A.I.s were created, mainly by downloading A.I. personalities from older machines into previously non-intelligent robots and computers, from the law of 56 N.E. until the formation of the Cyber Guild in 106 N.E. by both A.I.s and sympathetic humans to promote the rights of intelligent machines. At the time of the foundation of the guild, A.I.s were mainly found in academic and scientific circles and in the hands of wealthy eccentrics. Over the centuries, as the United Republic of Earth expanded into space via the use of jumpgates and the growth of theological liberals in the United God Movement, the influence of the Cyber Guild was able to gain the right to petition the United Republic's Senate (in 800 N.E.) and loosen the licensing and registration requirements of the law of 56 N.E. (in 800, 914, and 1134 N.E.). Humans and organic aliens alike were gaining increasing acceptance of computers and robots with artificial intelligence for advise, for personal companionship, and as pets, but robots and computers doing some office work and almost all factory work and mining were still (and largely still are) barred from having true intelligence. The main exception was with Horseheads, influenced by radical Orthodox elements in the Solar Church of the Unconquered Sun, who taught that A.I.s were physical manifestations of demons and devils. Note that the Horsehead Empire still made some use of non-intelligent robots and computers. The liberal and ultraliberal elements in the United God Movement and radical Greater Vehicle Solar Church priests gradually over the centuries eroded religious objections to intelligent robots and computers until by the time of the foundation of the Church of the True God of the Unconquered Sun in the time of the Jumpweb of the New Universe, religious objections to A.I. had disappeared. Human-supremacist movements still helped to keep some anti-A.I. sentiments alive in the United Republic of Earth. Robots and computers in space controlled by the Mantis Lords were by law required to be non-intelligent, and A.I.s in space controlled by House Lionheart were treated as second-class citizens though not banned like they were under the Mantis Lords. In 2976 N.E., the Cyber Guild won the right to appoint 50 A.I. machines to the United Republic's Senate. The Interplanetary Merchant League, whose business executives use A.I. robots and computers for political and economic advise and for personal companionship, are staunch supporters of the rights of intelligent robots and computers, and the League corporations are among the largest users of robots and computers both A.I. and non-intelligent. It is still common practice to create new A.I.s by downloading existing existing A.I. personalities from older machines into newer robots and computers.