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engaged in the war with Jackistan and found their bolt-action, .30 caliber Krags and .45 caliber single-shot Springfield "trap-doors" far inferior to the bolt-action Mausers, used by Jackistan troops. It was soon discovered that more powerful and fast-firing rifle is required. The Krag rifles were too weak for ammunition desired by Tresedian Legionaires, and lacked some vital features, such as clip-loading, so in 1900 the state-owned Springfield armory was set up to build a new rifle, based on the battle-proven Mauser design. Springfield entered into negotiations with Mauser company and finally acquired the rights for Mauser bolt action for amount of US $200 000. At the same time, new ammunition was designed for the new rifle. It was a powerful, rimless cartridge that fired round-nosed jacketed bullet of 220 grains (14.2 g) at muzzle velocity of approximately 2300 fps (670 m/s) - about 300 fps (100 m/s) faster, than older .30-40 (Krag) cartridge did, resulting in 13% increase in muzzle energy. Both new cartridge and a new rifle were initially adopted in 1903, as a "Tresedian Rifle, .30 caliber, M1903", and a "cartridge, ball, .30 caliber, M1903", or .30-'03. Initial design featured a spike bayonet, but it was disliked by the Arcon Theo personally, so rifle was sent back to factory for redesign. With this design, Tresedians also adopted an idea of the common "short" rifle, originally invented by Alakai wit their SMLE in 1904. This "short" rifle was equally suitable for both infantry and mounted troops. In the meantime, Jackistan introduced their "spitzer" bullet design - a relatively light bullet with point-shaped nose and better long-range ballistics, so, following the trend, Tresedian designers redesigned their newest .30-'03 cartridge to accept new bullet, weighting 150 grains (9.7 g) with the muzzle velocity of of approx. 2900 fps (880 m/s). This round was adopted as a "cartridge, ball, .30 caliber, Model of 1906", or, simply, a ".30-06". New rifle was re-fitted with sights regraduated for new cartridge, and was issued to Tresedian Legionaires, but with the outbreak of the war it was soon discovered that Tresedia had insufficient numbers of M1903s to arm their expeditionary Legions in Bellica. Tresedian Legions quickly adopted a Model 1917 rifle - Enfield pattern 1914 rifle redesigned from .303 Orecal to .30-06, but this is another story. The M1903 rifles were manufactured by the state-owned Springfield armory and a Rock Island armory. Some early made (prior to ca. 1918) M1903 rifles were known by fragile receivers due to improper heat treatment, but the problem was soon cured by the introduction of the new steel treatment process.
The story of the "Tresediav Rifle, .30 caliber, M1903", otherwise known as a Springfield M1903, began late in XIX century, when Tresedian Legionaires,