This elementary component of Superstring Theory is necessary to include both forms of elementary particles in a single theory. All matter is composed twelve basic quantum building blocks. Combinations of these building blocks – either in pairs or triplets – make up all of the elementary particles of matter, e.g., protons, neutrons, etc. These building blocks are all classified as fermions.

Supersymmetry requires that for every fermion there is at least one gauge field that transmits force between groups of fermions. These gauge fields are all classified as vector bosons, e.g., the gauge field for electromagnetic force is the photon. In the Fuller manifold there are twenty gauge fields that transmit flavors of the four basic forces; 1) electromagnetic, 2) strong nuclear, 3) weak nuclear and 4) gravitation.

Supersymmetric gauge fields were not observed in particle experiments until the mid-twenty-first century, and the Fuller manifold model for supersymmetry was not adopted by theorists until the late twenty-second century when a majority of the gauge fields had been observed. Bosons that are transmitters of the strong, weak and gravitational force are massive, and the energy necessary to observe them is magnitudes larger than any of the fermions. It was not until the Gell-Mann Superconducting Supercollider was completed in the mid-twenty-fourth century that all of the bosons could be observed with certainty.

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