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Meeting 26/1/07

  • We made the following decisions. Generally we didn't get too far, resolved to read the articles properly, and would see what happens on Monday.
  • We considered whether we should include both beliefs and activities in the survey in order to measure 'consciousness'. Overall, we decided we needed to include it, if nothing else because activities are the best (?) indicators of beliefs.
  • We thought about distinguishing ideal types of the 'environmentally conscious' and 'not environmentally conscious'.
  • We considered whether we could distinguish local and global environmentalism, but, especially given the environmentalist slogan 'think global, act local' that they could not be usefully distinguished in terms of either beliefs or actions.
  • We considered a kind of experiment-interview, whereby we utilise the Tesco 'carbon footprint' labelling to see if carbon footprints make a difference to choices between otherwise homogenous projects. Or we could look at the relative importance of branding and the extent of the carbon footprint by looking at products roughly homogenous except for branding.
  • We considered the following as important for looking at 'environmental consciousness':
  1. activism/political involvement (e.g. carbon offset schemes / Green party member)
  2. 'awareness' / beliefs
  3. consumer choices
  4. recycling
  5. 'willingness to pay': for what?
    1. plastic bags and coffee cups are paid for in Korea.

Notes 28/01/07

Meeting 02/03/07

  • We decided that _attitudes_ and _actions_ are the two indicators of environmental consciousness. Actions can be subdivided into three general categories: consumer behaviour, willingness to pay and activism.
  • We had a discussion as to whether anthropocentric or ecocentric views are more "environmentally conscious"; we concluded that these are two possible sources of attitudes/actions but whether a person is rather ecocentric or anthropocentric in their views has no bearing on how environmentally conscious we would consider them to be.
  • We agreed that the questions that we will come up with should be potentially transformable into scales.
  • We agreed that, compared to the questions included in the readings, our questions should include references to more recent developments, such as for example carbon offset schemes such as this one.
  • We decided to start working on specific questions. Anna and Tom are going to work on questions concerning attitudes. Weeda is going to focus on consumer behaviour, Jiweon on environmental activism, and Christie on the willingness to pay. When we meet again, we should each come with a number of questions, the more the better, within reason.

Notes 05/02/07

  1. This website has some interesting questions related to environmental issues; it might provide some inspiration.
  2. This website has information on Tesco's carbon footprint project; it seems that it is nothing more than words at the moment.

Environmental Knowledge Questions (draft 1)

Politicians often talk about climate change. Which of the following do you associate with ‘climate change’? Please tick all that apply.

  • Tides in the sea
  • Global warming
  • A change in weather patterns brought about by the greenhouse effect
  • Earthquakes

Which, if any, of these countries are tend to be more environmentally conscious than the other countries?

  • Germany
  • United States of America
  • Canada
  • China

Which, if any, of the these phrases have you heard of? Please tick all that apply.

  • The Kyoto Agreement
  • Climate Change
  • Sustainable Development
  • The Johannesburg, or Earth Summit

[adapted from http://www.defra.gov.uk/environment/statistics/pubatt/annex3.htm]

Which, if any, of the following are ‘Greenhouse gases’ produced by burning fossil fuels? Please tick all that apply.

  • Nitrogen
  • Oxygen
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Hydrogen

In the 1980s it was discovered that there was a hole in the o-zone layer. Do you know which continent this hole was above?

  • Africa
  • Australia
  • Antarctica
  • Europe

Who founded the Body Shop?

  • Anita Roddick
  • Annika Rice
  • Claudia Shiffer
  • Michael Moore

==


Meeting Feb 09

We agreed to meet in two seperate groups before all meet together: Anna and Tom will focus on their portion of questionnaire on environmental attitudeds and knowledge (Tom is in charge of questions on knowledge) Jiweon (political activism), Christie (willingness to pay) and Weeda (consumerism) will meet seperately to put together a list of possible questions for the behaviour part. The group will meet next week, possibly Friday. Meeting outcome:

- focus on writing questions on each assigned topic,

- the format and scale of the questionnaire will be decided later on in the group meeting, so no worries as to whether a Q. be open/close ended, yes/no/ da da da da

- there is no limit to the number of questions, editing can be done later - use "concerned" instead of "worried" across all quesions

- to avoid double barrel Qs. only mention animal species (not plants)plants can be incorporated elswhere in the questionnaire

- questions about air pollution should somehow have an inference to the concerns at the local level

- undecided about the question on nuclear waste, since concerns about the waste does not directly measure our concept. Tom and Anna will discuss it together and decided how to word the question...the other group members, watch out for any nuclear energy debates they come across during researching

- Tom suggested the Qs. list discussed today does not address the core of the concept. My impression: the Qs. do not address the ecocentric and andropocentric views. If we want to include any discussion of these two terms, we need to have at least one question for each view exclusively

Here are some items that can be included/considered for Anna and Tom's part:

- People worry too much about human progress harming the env.

- nature would be at peace and in harmony if only human beings would leave it alone

- any change humans cause in the nature- no matter how scientific- is likely to make things worse



In response to Tom's knowlege Qs

- Q 1: instead of testing abstract terms such as tides, I suggest we put real examples such as hurricanes (eg. Hurricane katrina), likewise for other response items in this q.

Q2. Germany is fine to stay there, though doubt that someone is env conscious if he/she picks Canada versus states, or vise versa. Although Canada signed the Kyoto protocol, it lags far behind its objectives. on the other hand, the US did not sign it, but there are some indications that its Carbon Credit policies are more effective in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. I suggest we add any Scandanivian country, as an example of a country with env. concsious and sustainable policies (if that is what you are aiming at). Moreover we need to decide on what basis do we label these countries env. conscious/pro-env policies etc

Q3. well everyone must have heard the word climate change, in the rare case of not having heard, they might encounter it in an earlier question in our survey

Q 4. The response items only include one of the major greenhouse gases, namely CO2. The rest are not. The item on Nitrogen is misleading cause it is not exactly nitrogen but Nitrus Oxide which is agreenhouse gas. (the Q also asks to circle as many). We might as well included terms appearing quite often like methan, cloroflorocarbons, and most of all water vapour which makes up to 70 % of greenhouse gases! Hence, if specefic knowledge is tested, we need to be more specefic with both response categories or put one greenhouse gas among a list of not greenhouse gases and ask respondent to chose one!

Q5. "ozone" layer question is good

Q6. It definitely is "Michael Moor"

In response to Tom's Q

First of all, I must say that they all are quite amusing, unlike other boring survey questions... But Q4 and Q5 look a bit more like quiz questions, wouldn't they need an option 'I don't know'? I am also curious about the reason Q2 is included. It is an interesting question, but I wonder if it is relevant. Q6---too difficult for me! I think Q3 is good and important, though some more information can be added.

From the question bank, I found a set of questions related to our topic-I think it could be helpful for Attitude questions.

http://qb.soc.surrey.ac.uk/surveys/bsa/SCC2.pdf#xml=http://qb.soc.surrey.ac.uk/cgi-bin/semaphore/pdf_hl?STEMMER=en&RGB=ff00ff&WORDS=environment


Questions regarding Willingness to Pay

Basically, by "willingness to pay" I am measuring how much people would sacrifice national economies, living standards and individual economic interests for the sake of environment. Feel free to give any thoughts.^^

How much do you agree with the following statements: 1. Business that fail to meet environmental regulations after they've received a warning should be closed down, even though it would mean a loss of jobs.

2. The government should sharply limit companies' access to Britain's wilderness land, even though it would mean a loss of jobs in some areas.

3. There should be a tougher anti-pollution law, even if such laws decrease our standard of living.

4. We should not build new roads to relieve traffic congestions because it will lead to loss of countryside.

5. The government places higher environmental taxes on gasoline, even though it will lead to higher prices for consumers.

6. Electric and gas utilities should be required to spend a larger share of their budgets on ways to increase energy efficiency, even if it means higher prices for consumers.

How much are you willing to do the following things: 7. How much are you wiling to pay for plastic bags and disposable coffee cups?

8. How much are you willing to donate money to support environmental cause?

9. How much are you willing to buy environment-friendly products (washing power, detergents, products made from recycled materials) even though they are more expensive?

By "how much are you wiling to" I am not referring to the actual amount of money. Instead I may create a scale from "not at all" to "very willing to".

Christy

Questions regarding Environmental activities

1. Are you a member of any group whose main aim is to preserve or protect the environment? (yes / no)

2. In the last five years, have you….(yes, no)

  • a. …signed a petition about an environmental issue
  • b. ….donated money to support an environmental cause
  • c. …taken part in a protest or demonstration about an environmental issue
  • d. …phoned TV/Radio talk show or participated online polls concerning environmental issues
  • e. …voted for or against someone mainly because of their views on the environment
  • f. …expressed an opinion about supporting environment on websites (e.g., newspaper, government etc.)

3. Which of the following would you be willing to do to improve environment (Yes, No, Not sure/Don’t know)?

  • a. …volunteer for environmental activities
  • b. …contribute money
  • c. …decline a job offer from a company harming the environment
  • d. …boycott a product because of environmental concern
  • e. …support for a tougher environmental laws

Oh, if we do the face to face interview, we need to plan carefully about the number of the questions. When Christy and I tried some questions concerning politics, we were able to do up to 15 questions in 5 minutes. It could be different with environmental questions though. Also, I think the wording should be different depending on the method we choose. See you tomorrow.

Jiweon


First Draft of Questionnaire

First Draft of Environmental Consciousness Questionnaire

Writing in [square brackets] is directed to the interviewer.

1) Please could you tell me whether you agree with the following statements about your beliefs? There are five possible responses from which I would like you to choose- agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and finally neither agree nor disagree.

a) I am concerned about global warming b) I am concerned about the fact that rainforests are disappearing c) I am concerned about the fact that animal species are becoming extinct d) I am concerned about air pollution e) I am concerned about the effects of nuclear waste on the environment

2) I would now like you to tell me whether you agree with the following statements. Again, there are five possible responses from which I would like you to choose- agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and finally neither agree nor disagree

a) General quality of life depends on the quality of natural environment b) Children should learn at school how they can change their behaviour to reduce carbon emissions c) Loss of some plants and animals is inevitable in a developed country d) The government should only pay agricultural subsidies to farmers if they protect the environment e) The government should fund more research in the development of renewable energy sources f) People worry too much about human progress harming the environment

[Knowledge] 3) There is a great deal of discussion about climate change today. Which of the following phenomena do you associate with ‘climate change’? Please respond ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to each of the following that I read out.

a) Tides in the sea b) Global warming c) A change in weather patterns brought about by the greenhouse effect d) Earthquakes

4) Now then, I would like to know which of these phrases have you heard of, either through the news or any other source. Again, please could you respond ‘yes’ or ‘no’ to each of the following?

a) The Kyoto Agreement b) Climate Change c) Sustainable Development d) The Johannesburg, or Earth Summit

5) Thank you. I am also interested in which of the following you would recognise as what are often called ‘greenhouse gases’, the gases which are thought to cause climate change. Please answer yes or no to each of the following: a) Nitrogen b) Oxygen c) Carbon Dioxide d) Methane

6) In the 1980s it was discovered that there was a hole in the o-zone layer. Could you tell me which continent you think it was above please? [coding is below rather than responses to be read out] a) Antarctica – correct answer b) Another continent given c) Don’t know response

[Consumption] 7) Some people think it is important to change your individual behaviour to be environmentally friendly, though others disagree. Could you then please tell me whether in the past month, you have taken any of the following actions specifically for environmental reasons, rather than for any other reason (like reducing the amount of money you have to spend)? Please answer yes or no.

a) Decided not to buy a particular product due to its packaging b) Turn off your electronic appliances to save energy c) Deliberately changed your travelling habits, including the method of transport d) Used low energy light bulbs at home e) Recycled paper at home f) Made compost out of kitchen waste

[Willingness to pay]

8) How much do you agree with the following statements? Please choose one of the following responses; agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and or finally neither agree nor disagree.

a) Businesses that fail to meet environmental regulations should be closed down, even though it would mean a loss of jobs. b) The government should limit companies' access to Britain's countryside, even though this will mean a loss of jobs in some areas. c) The government should have a new environmental tax on petrol d) Electricity utilities should be required to spend a larger share of their budgets on ways to increase energy efficiency, even if it means higher prices for consumers e) The government should pass a law requiring consumers to pay extra for disposable plastic bags in shops

[Activities] 9) Are you a member of any group whose main aim is to preserve or protect the environment? (yes / no). What is it called?

10) In the past year, have you… a) signed a petition about an environmental issue b) donated money to support an environmental cause c) taken part in a protest or demonstration about an environmental issue d) Expressed an opinion about supporting environment to your friends

11) Which of the following would you be willing to do to improve environment? a) volunteer for local environmental activities, like tree planting b) contribute money to an environmental charity c) decline a job offer from a company harming the environment d) boycott a product because of environmental concern e) vote for a politician because of their views on the environmental [Responses: yes, no, maybe]

Minutes of Meeting 16 Feb

Minutes of Survey Methods Meeting 16/2/07

We agreed that our survey would be a telephone interview. This was justified principally on the grounds that there is nothing that is overly complicated, or will require a great deal more explanation, or visual aids (which are the principle advantages of face-to-face interviews), sufficient to justify the cost of face to face interviewing. It was also noted that it is not a particularly sensitive topic, so the distance created by a telephone would not be so much of a problem. Moreover, it is only a five minute long survey.

We noted (again) that there are five sections to our survey:

Knowledge / attitudes / consumption / willingness to pay / activities

Consumption: we changed ‘electricity/gas’ into ‘energy’, to be clearer. We dropped mention of ‘household’ in favour of a simple question about actions. We changed ‘deliberately use public transport/walked/cycled’ into a more general question about travel habits. We changed ‘decided not to buy a particular product because it had too much packing’ into the question actually asked. We noted that this would be at the extreme end of environmental consciousness. We also decided to have this at the start, because it is most likely to be done for ‘other reasons’ rather than environmental reasons, and by the end of the question they may have forgotten this stipulation. ‘ Used low energy light bulbs at home’ is better than bought, as you don’t buy these often. We dropped making compost out of ‘lawn waste, such as leaves and weeds’ because it might reflect being a gardener more than anything else. We chose paper recycling because it is the most widely used form of recycling- other forms depend upon local authority provision, which is patchy for anything other than paper. paper recycling was rolled out first by local authorities.

Willingness to pay We dropped ‘after they've received a warning’ to make the question something less easy to agree with. Similarly with ‘sharply’ in the next question. We dropped 3 & 4 because they were too close to the attitudes questions. Dropped coffee cups for fear of doubled barrelled Qs

Activities Dropped talk show question as was unusual to do. Dropped voting question from first set and added to the second website etc changed to ‘to your friends’ as this is more common.

‘to an environmental charity’ added to contribute money question law question dropped as it is repeated elsewhere

Meeting 26/2/07

Minutes of survey methods meeting 26/2/07

Some of Anna and Jiweon’s respondents thought that they had to answer as quickly as possible, rather than naturally, because they realised it was being timed. Conversly, some of Tom and Christy’s respondents, were deliberately (irritatingly) pedantic about the questions in order to ‘model’ irritating and pedantic respondents to the questionnaire.

All question numbers refer to the questionnaire version (3).

4f) measures owning a house.

Some pre-testing respondents forgot that the extremes (i.e. ‘strongly’) were available as answers. ‘Remember there are five options’ was added to resolve this- only used a few times. Can we add it too many times despite boring the respondents? We considered using numbers instead (strength of agreement, 1 being strongly agree…) but dismissed it because the translation would be complicated. The extremes were used by the particularly environmentally conscious people so they are worth keeping to distinguish them.

Q 1) ‘s scale was intelligible / reflected how they thought about the issue according to pre-testing.

‘Not sure’ added to Q2/3 instead of ‘neither agree nor disagree’. Not sure will capture those who disagree with the wording of the question (more than ‘neither’ because the old scale is better at forcing a choice between the options). This including not sure will perhaps give clearer responses when we get them, but is less likely to indicate an inclination on the respondents’ part. In pre-testing, neither agree/disagree was only used when the respondents disagreed with the wording / concepts used in a question, and usually only when they were prompted to use that option.

(4) text in brackets was dropped because it is are unnecessary

(7) ‘maybe’ added. respondents wanted it in pre-testing

3b) respondents don’t understand. See Anna’s notes on the issue.

3d) revised to become new Q4d

7e) dropped because there are many reasons to vote for a politician

4c) complicated. Changed to be question 6

7/8b) duplication. For time reasons and repeats drop 7b)

7) no fewer ‘no’ s are possible, so people will feel less of a bastard. Plus, ‘if you had the opportunity’ added, to bring hypotheticality to it

3a) changed to heavily fined and ‘some’ jobs lost, to make process clear

3d) disposable dropped. It doesn’t add anything to the Q

2c) dropped. 1) double barrelled 2) species vs individual animals lost (car accidents) 3) developing or developed countries 4) repeats 1c

2d) changed to 2c)

1) changed to use all nouns

Q7 becomes Q2 for a better flow and to prevent a making people feel guilty in the survey and thus perhaps changing their answers

7c) changed to apply for a job, because a person wouldn’t apply for a job in order to refuse it on principle…

cheers, tom

Final Version!!!

Environmental Consciousness Questionnaire (Beta version 4.1)

1) Please could you tell me whether you are concerned about the following issues? There are three possible responses from which I would like you to choose—very concerned, quite concerned, or not very concerned.

a) global warming b) disappearing rainforests c) extinction of animal species d) air pollution e) the effects of nuclear waste on the environment

2) In the past year, have you… a) signed a petition about an environmental issue b) donated money to support an environmental cause c) taken part in a protest or demonstration about an environmental issue d) Expressed an opinion about supporting the environment to your friends

3) I would now like you to tell me whether you agree with the following statements. There are five possible responses from which I would like you to choose—agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and finally not sure

a) General quality of life depends on the quality of the natural environment b) Children should learn at school how they can change their behaviour to reduce carbon emissions c) The government should pay bigger agricultural subsidies to farmers who do not use chemical fertilisers or pesticides; remember, there are five responses you can choose from d) The government should fund more research in the development of renewable energy sources e) People worry too much about technological progress harming the environment

4) How much do you agree with the following statements? Just as in the last question I would like you to choose one of the following responses; agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and finally not sure.

a) Businesses that fail to meet environmental regulations should be heavily fined, even though it would mean a loss of some jobs. b) The government should increase taxes on petrol for environmental reasons; remember, there are five responses you can choose from c) The government should pass a law requiring consumers to pay extra for plastic bags in shops d) Some electricity suppliers burn coal and oil to produce electricity. This releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. These suppliers should be required to spend more money reducing those carbon dioxide emissions, even if this means higher prices for consumers. Remember, there are five responses you can choose from.

5) Some people think it is important to change your individual behaviour to be environmentally friendly, though others disagree. Could you then please tell me whether in the past month, you have taken any of the following actions specifically for environmental reasons, rather than for any other reason? Please answer yes or no.

a) Decided not to buy a particular product due to its packaging b) Turned off your electronic appliances to save energy c) Used low energy light bulbs at home d) Recycled paper at home

6) Have you ever used a different method of transport than you otherwise have done, specifically for environmental reasons? Please answer yes or no.

7) Are you a member of any group whose main aim is to preserve or protect the environment? (yes / no).

8) If you had the opportunity, which of the following would you be willing to do to help the environment? Please choose from yes, no and maybe. a) volunteer for local environmental activities, like tree planting b) choose not to apply for a job with a company harming the environment c) boycott a product because of environmental concern

Further Pre-Testing

On a different matter, I and Anka run a couple of pre-tests with the revised questionnaire. here are the results: 1. It takes the respondnets around five minutes, so that is good. 2. Anka reminded respondents 'remember you have five options", some said oh yeah i remember... 3. one respondent suggested "more options for question one", for instance, rate your concern...from 1-5. 4. for some respondents Anka did not read "remember you have five options" still the respondents used "strongly agree/strongly disagree". So it doesn't really make a big difference, though to be on the safe side, i think we should keep it. I just noticed that for questions 3c and 4D which happen to be the longest, we use "remember you have blah blah blah" so i suggest we rearrange the order of the items in those two questions so that we don't have to remind make it sound even longer... Wish you all a great sunday... ciao weeda

some more pre-testing; Tom and Christy's cognitive interview

Cognitive interview; Notes; thoughts raised after the interview by the interviewers (Tom and Christy) are in [square brackets]

1a) He asked to be reminded about the scale. Confused not very concerned with not at all concerned.

1b) Said “if I get three options and I’m not very concerned about it I’ll always choose the middle one… environment is not my top priority”

1d) asthmatic- hence he is concerned here.

1e) scientific disagreement noted. Therefore, unsure.

More options on these questions would be good, according to him.

2)

3) a) depends. Mexico city- yes a problem. “This is a very strongly statement”. Generally he understands quality of life to mean happiness.

b) earlier is better.

c) depends on how much subsidy you’re talking about. How much more?

e) “I don’t know whether people worry about that”. Technological progress was held to be too ambiguous a term.

4 d) doesn’t this happen already? Does in Holland…

5a) He grunted when questioner said ‘specifically for environmental reasons”. Depends on alternatives. they understand the question well.

b) was understood.

6) “oh so this is about cars and trains and planes and stuff” so therefore understood the question. Said that he took the bicycle a lot.

7) used to be a member of the WWF during childhood. [Change to ‘have you ever?’]

8) a) too much of a focus on tree planting. Therefore replace, or supplicate? Hippies come to mind.

[re Q 8) should we drop ‘help the environment’? Loaded words?]

Minutes of meeting on March 7, 2007

  • Question 1

Response options after the correction are (even more) skewed towards the positive. This is in part due to the nature of “being concerned”. Could be corrected by adding more options (for example (“not very concerned”), but it would make the list too ling. Decision: we stick with the “extremely concerned, very concerned, quite concerned, or not at all concerned” option.

  • Question 2

No problems here.

  • Question 3

The “neutral” response is meant to be used by those who DO have an opinion but their opinion is to neither agree nor disagree; the “not sure” option – by those who DON’T have an opinion. However, it makes the list of responses very long, and the number of those who are neutral is probably minimal, and we’ve never seen it used before, and it makes the respident’s life even more complicated. Decision: we stick with the previous “agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and finally not sure” version.

  1. Point e: “People worry too much about technological progress harming the environment” – dropped, because of two problems:
    1. the same negative response (‘disagree) could come from both people who think people don’t worry too much, i.e. they worry rather just little, or just about the right amount, (these would be respondents who probably are not particularly env. conscious) and from people who think that people do worry, but not nearly worry enough (these would be respondents who are more env. conscious). So the question doesn’t measure the level of consciousness.
    2. “technological progress” too vague, plus it might be good for the environment
  • Question 4

No problems.

  • Question 5

We decided to drop the “wrapping presents” question because:

  1. it not something done regularly so may not have happened in the past month
  2. a bit too vague (not wrapped at all? not used a ribbon? wht if it was appropriately festively packaged already when bought?)

We replaced it with: Used your own shopping bags instead of plastic bags when shopping.

  • Question 6

No problems.

  • Question 7

Changed to: “Are you currently a member of any group whose main aim is to preserve or protect the environment? Please answer yes or no.” The version with “have you ever been…?” is not a valid measurement. If I was a member of an env. organization as a child, does that make me more env, conscious now? Maybe yes, but maybe no – no way to tell. The wording with “currently” assumes that being a member at the moment is a proxy for being at the moment concerned with env. issues.

  • Question 8

Changed point c because it was not specific enough and did not conjure any specific image for the respondents. Changed to: “boycott a hair shampoo because the company producing the shampoo is polluting rivers”.

  • Jean confirmed in her e-mail that we don’t need to format it so as to give space for the responses to be recorded. Therefore, the final version that I am posting here in a moment should really be the final final version :-)

Environmental Consciousness Questionnaire
FINAL VERSION

1) Please could you tell me whether you are concerned about the following issues? There are four possible responses from which I would like you to choose—extremely concerned, very concerned, quite concerned, or not at all concerned. a) global warming b) disappearing rainforests c) extinction of animal species d) air pollution e) the effects of nuclear waste on the environment

2) In the past year, have you… a) signed a petition about an environmental issue? b) donated money to support an environmental cause? c) taken part in a protest or demonstration about an environmental issue? d) expressed an opinion about supporting the environment to your friends?

3) I would now like you to tell me whether you agree with the following statements. There are five possible responses from which I would like you to choose—agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and finally, not sure. a) General quality of life depends on the quality of the natural environment. b) Children should learn at school how they can change their behaviour to reduce carbon emissions. c) The government should pay bigger agricultural subsidies to farmers who do not use chemical fertilisers or pesticides. (Remember, there are five responses you can choose from.) d) The government should fund more research in the development of renewable energy sources.

4) How much do you agree with the following statements? Just as in the last question I would like you to choose one of the following responses: agree, disagree, strongly agree, strongly disagree, and finally, not sure. a) Businesses that fail to meet environmental regulations should be heavily fined, even though it would mean a loss of some jobs. b) The government should increase taxes on petrol for environmental reasons. (Remember, there are five responses you can choose from.) c) The government should pass a law requiring consumers to pay extra for plastic bags in shops. d) Some electricity suppliers burn coal and oil to produce electricity. This releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. These suppliers should be required to spend more money reducing those carbon dioxide emissions, even if this means higher prices for consumers. (Remember, there are five responses you can choose from.)

5) Some people think it is important to change your individual behaviour to be environmentally friendly, though others disagree. Could you then please tell me whether in the past month, you have taken any of the following actions specifically for environmental reasons, rather than for any other reason? Please answer yes or no. a) used your own shopping bags instead of plastic bags when shopping b) turned off your electronic appliances to save energy c) used low energy light bulbs at home d) recycled paper at home

6) Have you ever used a different method of transport than you otherwise would have done, specifically for environmental reasons? Please answer yes or no.

7) Are you currently a member of any group whose main aim is to preserve or protect the environment? Please answer yes or no.

8) If you had the opportunity, which of the following would you be willing to do? Please choose from yes, no and maybe. a) volunteer for local environmental activities, like tree planting b) choose not to apply for a job with a company harming the environment c) boycott a hair shampoo because the company producing the shampoo is polluting rivers

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