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Exoplanetary Scratchpad

[SysBP Img]

Systems With Multiple Planets

Systems With Hot Giants

GSC 03089-00929 System

Has planet TrES-3, the most massive transiting Very Hot Jupiter planet. Planet has one of the first two ground-detected atmospheres. A large ground-based telescope method of observation was pioneered on this planet.

Gliese 436 System

The second known red dwarf planetary system. Contains one of the first Neptunians discovered. Planet b temporarily later found to be the smallest exoplanet (about Uranus' diameter, though over 50% its mass) known to transit its host star and is currently the nearest (33 ly). Its temperature (712K) was measured to be higher than what it would be purely from radiation (520K), perhaps due to a greenhouse effect, somewhat higher than Venus. It was originally thought to have a layer of "hot ice", water solidified due to high pressures. It turned out that it was larger than thought and hot ice was not needed. It could still be a rocky super-Earth. It was later found to have a remarkably low levels of Methane and high levels of Carbon Monoxide for its 800K temperature. Possible explanations include Methane being changed into hydrocarbon polymers due to its star's ultraviolet radiation, CO being drafted upwards with winds, or observational defects. It's significant eccentricity suggests a possible neighboring planet. Planet c was announced to be the smallest known exoplanet (1.5 Earth's diameter), but was later retracted because variations in transit timing of the first planet did not occur and the proposed orbit would be unstable. It is still thought that a second planet of some kind is possible in the system.

  • Painting of planet b after discovery.
  • Possible sizes when discovered.
  • Possible terminator habitable zone (obsolete).
  • Illustration of terminator HZ.
  • Artwork of planet and transit.
  • Interior diagram of planet.

HD 189733 System

Planet b (the first nearby Very Hot Jupiter, originally thought to be inflated) is the nearest planet discovered using the transit technique (62.9 ly). This is the first exoplanet to have its temperature mapped and was nicknamed Bull's Eye for its hot spot that is significantly offset from the starward pole. It is also the first exoplanet for which scattered light in the upper atmosphere has been detected and the second exoplanet with water detected and first with Methane and then Carbon Dioxide detected. It later was the first exoplanet whose gasses were detected from Earth-based telescopes. It was also found to spin up its star and magnetically interact with it, causing stellar storms. Hubble found that its atmosphere was a uniform blue haze.

Systems With Debris Fields

Epsilon Eridani System

Nearest single non-red dwarf star to the Sun and the second nearest system with a confirmed planet. The planet is a very elliptical Jupiter-like world. It also has two asteroid belts and a kuiper belt, with evidence of planets in between.

Tau Ceti System

The nearest single G-class yellow dwarf to the sun. It has five super-Earth sized planets in orbit around it, discovered using a new and very powerful but also controversial technique, and an outer debris disk with ten times more material than our solar system's Kuiper belt has.

Two of the planets in the Tau Ceti system are located on opposite edges of a very liberally described habitable zone, analogous to Venus and Mars. No planet has as yet been detected near the middle of the habitable zone, in a situation similar to Earth.

Systems With Brown Dwarves

Epsilon Indi System

Second nearest single sunlike star to the Sun. Orange dwarf with a binary brown dwarf orbiting it. The smaller of the two is the closest thing to an "extrasolar moon" found so far.

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