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Exoplanetary Scratchpad

[SysBP Img]

The multiplicity of exoplanet host stars

Spectroscopic confirmation of the companions GJ3021B and HD27442B, one new planet host triple-star system, and global statistics
From http://fr.arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0703795 abstract:
We present new results from our ongoing multiplicity study of exoplanet host stars and present a list of 29 confirmed planet host multiple-star systems. Furthermore, we discuss the properties of these stellar systems and compare the properties of exoplanets detected in these systems with those of planets orbiting single stars.

Main Studies

Exoplanet host stars in multiple-star systems

Class-1 Systems (a, e assumed)

  • 55 Cancri System - Wide binary star consisting of a sun-like primary (A) and a red-dwarf secondary (B) separated by 1,100 AU, 41 light years away. Star A contains five exoplanets, the first system found with this many. It has three tightly packed eccentric planets close in to the star, including planet e (hot Super Earth/Neptunian), b (hot Jupiter), and c (hot Saturn). Planet e was the first Neptunian discovered. It was later found to be the shortest-period planet discovered (18 hours) and to transit. The planet has about half of Neptune's mass, but is Earth-like in size and density (2.17 Earth Radius). It is composed 70% of rock and the outer 30% is likely an ocean of super-critical water (between a gas and liquid state) that is 3000km thick. This is the hottest and densest super-Earth and the is the most watery planet found to date. It likely possesses a thick atmosphere of CO and CO2. The brightness of the star (also closest known to transit and only known naked eye star to do so) makes it more easily studied than other hot super Earths. Planet f is a very eccentric Saturnian in the habitable zone. Planet d is a super jovian at Jupiter-like distances, which was the first found at true Jupiter distances and still the exoplanet discovered with dopplar spectrometry with the largest known semi-major axis. The distant outer star causes planet d's axis to flip on its axis every million years. Planet d in turn causes the other planets to flip, including its star. The axis tilt of transiting planet e should be determined at some point. "Bode's law" predicts four undiscovered planets.
  • 83 Leo System - (aka 83 Leonis) Multiple star system with a planet.
  • Gliese 3021 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • Gliese 777 System - Outer planet of the primary star was initially believed to be a Jupiter analog, but later found to be eccentric (its apastron is at Jupiter-like distance). Its second planet was the fourth Neptunian discovered and was announced with four other "second" planets in 2005.
  • Gliese 86 System - Contains the first exoplanet discovered by CORALIE of the Geneva southern extrasolar planet search programme. A cloudless blue heavy jupiter and a white dwarf around an orange star.
  • HD 109749 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 114729 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 114762 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 142 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 142022 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 16141 System - A yellow subgiant star around which the smaller of the first 2 Saturnians discovered (HD 46375 b was the other one) is in a Mercury-like orbit.
  • HD 195019 System - A cloudless blue jovian around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 196050 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 213240 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 222582 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 27442 System - (aka Epsilon Reticuli) A cloudless blue jovian around an orange sub-giant star.
  • HD 46375 System - An orange subgiant around which the larger of the first two Saturnians discovered (79 Ceti b was the other one) orbits, which was the first "Epistellar Saturn" discovered.
  • HD 75289 System - A cloudy Hot Jupiter around an yellow dwarf star.
  • HD 80606 System - Multiple star system with a planet, which has a higher period (111 days) than any other known transiting planet and highest eccentricty (Halley's comet-like). Discovered in 2001, but found to transit in 2009. Its orbit brings it from epistellar distances to Earth-like distances. Planet is the first one for which changes in weather have been observed. Potassium was detected from the high wind regions of the exosphere. In 2010 it was found to be only one of the two out of all 79 known transiting exoplanetary systems that could not support a habitable Earth-like planet, since its elongated orbit would destabilize any such planets.
  • HD 89744 System - Contains a highly eccentric planet which was recently studied to determine what other planets could exist in the system.
  • Upsilon Andromedae System - A nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Planet b (0.05 au, 1.4 MJ, e=0.013) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. The middle planets c (0.83 au, 14 MJ, may actually be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and d (2.5 au, 10 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material.
  • HD 40979 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 401004 System - Multiple star system with a planet.
  • HD 178911 System - A cloudless blue jovian around one of the two yellow giant star in a binary system.

Class-2 Systems (a, e known)

  • Gamma Cephei System - Jovian and red dwarf around an orange sub-giant.
  • HD 19994 System - (aka 94 Ceti) A yellow water cloud jovian around a hot yellow dwarf star.
  • Tau Bootis System - Contains one of the first discovered Hot Jupiters, which was one of the largest and hottest of the earlier discovered ones. First planet-bearing star to have its magnetosphere probed. Hot Jupiter is embedded within it and tidally locks the star's rotation.
  • HD 188753 System - First triple star system found to have a planet.
  • 16 Cygni System - A hierarchical triple star system. Has one of the first highly eccentric Jovians discovered around the "outer" star B. Recent calculations show that a short period planet could exist around the same star, but none up to as large as Neptune could exist elsewhere.


10 Most Intriguing Stars of 2007

Planet Quest asked number of leading planet hunters to name their most intriguing stars for 2007 and posted the results.
http://planetquest.jpl.nasa.gov/intriguing_launch_page.cfm

  • Gliese 581 System - Small nearby Red Dwarf with six planets in tight circular orbits and a distant Kuiper belt where many comets orbit. Gliese 581 e was, at the time of its discovery, the smallest known dopplar-detected exoplanet and a super-Mercury, b is a hot-Neptunian, c is a super-Venus and the first detected in the habitable zone (initially heralded as habitable, but later thought too hot due to the greenhouse effect), g is a super-Earth and the first detected in the middle of the HZ (and is highly controversial, having many doubters and defenders), d is a super-Earth on the outer edge of the HZ which could support liquid water (due to its presumably large atmospheric pressure and carbon dioxide), and f (its existence is also highly controversial) is a cold super-Earth. Much further out, from 25 ± 12 AU to more than 60 AU, there is a cold debris disk reminiscent of the Kuiper belt but with 10 times more comets than the one in our solar system. The star is not very active.
  • Upsilon Andromedae System - A nearby (44 ly) multi-star system which is the first multiplanet system found around a main sequence star. The main star around which the planets orbit is a yellow-white star somewhat younger than the sun and its companion is a red dwarf in a wide orbit. It is one of the most well studied non-transiting star systems. Roaster Planet b (0.05 au, 1.4 MJ, e=0.013) is nicknamed the Fire and Ice Planet because it is hot on one side and cold on the other. The hottest parts of the planet are near the trailing side terminator at the equator, due to high velocity winds transporting heat to the night side. This is 80deg offset from the starward pole and a much greater offset than other observed hot Jupiters. This threw astronomers off and caused them to doubt the wind-theory, though later observations of other planets have shown that winds indeed can travel fast enough to cause this. The middle planets c (0.83 au, 14 MJ, may actually be a brown dwarf star, e=0.224) and d (2.5 au, 10 MJ, e=0.26) have had their inclinations and masses determined with astrometry. They are very eccentric and highly inclined to each other (30 deg). Planet scattering was thought to be a source until the outermost planet was discovered. This is planet e (5.2 au, 1.05 MJ, e = 0.005), which is the most Jupiter-like exoplanet known, and is in 3:1 resonance with planet d. The star appears to have no Kuiper-belt like disc, perhaps due to its companion star sweeping away this material.
  • Pollux System - Planet confirmed that was first suspected in 1993. This is the brightest star in the sky known to have a planet.
  • HAT-P-1 System - A stellar binary believed to contain the planet with the biggest known diameter and the least dense. This would have been only the second planet with such a low density. Later measurements showed it wasn't that inflated, and has the expected radius for a highly irradiated core-less Hot Jupiter.
  • 51 Pegasi System - Contains the first exo-planet around a normal star discovered and the first "Hot Jupiter" found, which is nicknamed "Bellerophon". Found to have supersonic winds that caused the eternal night-side hemisphere to be as hot as the day-side one.
  • Epsilon Indi System - Second nearest single sunlike star to the Sun. Orange dwarf with a binary brown dwarf orbiting it. The smaller of the two is the closest thing to an "extrasolar moon" found so far.
  • HD 209458 System - Has first discovered transiting planet which was nicknamed Osiris due to the comet-like tail detected and the first exoplanet around a normal star to have its mass directly measured. The planet may be losing its outer atmosphere, or magnetism may prevent the ions from escaping. They detected water in its atmosphere (they had failed earlier), the first time this has been done for any exoplanet. 2nd Exoplanet with detected organic compounds; like HD 189733b, it has water and carbon dioxide, but it has a lot more Methane. Tracking carbon molecules with dopplar spectrometry caused it to be the first exoplanet detected to have winds, which are raging at 5,000 to 10,000 km/h. This is believed to cause hotspots to appear at terminators rather than at the star-ward facing point.
  • HD 189733 System - Planet b (the first nearby Very Hot Jupiter, originally thought to be inflated) is the nearest planet discovered using the transit technique (62.9 ly). This is the first exoplanet to have its temperature mapped and was nicknamed Bull's Eye for its hot spot that is significantly offset from the starward pole. It is also the first exoplanet for which scattered light in the upper atmosphere has been detected and the second exoplanet with water detected and first with Methane and then Carbon Dioxide detected. It later was the first exoplanet whose gasses were detected from Earth-based telescopes. It was also found to spin up its star and magnetically interact with it, causing stellar storms. Hubble found that its atmosphere was a uniform blue haze.
  • 55 Cancri System - Wide binary star consisting of a sun-like primary (A) and a red-dwarf secondary (B) separated by 1,100 AU, 41 light years away. Star A contains five exoplanets, the first system found with this many. It has three tightly packed eccentric planets close in to the star, including planet e (hot Super Earth/Neptunian), b (hot Jupiter), and c (hot Saturn). Planet e was the first Neptunian discovered. It was later found to be the shortest-period planet discovered (18 hours) and to transit. The planet has about half of Neptune's mass, but is Earth-like in size and density (2.17 Earth Radius). It is composed 70% of rock and the outer 30% is likely an ocean of super-critical water (between a gas and liquid state) that is 3000km thick. This is the hottest and densest super-Earth and the is the most watery planet found to date. It likely possesses a thick atmosphere of CO and CO2. The brightness of the star (also closest known to transit and only known naked eye star to do so) makes it more easily studied than other hot super Earths. Planet f is a very eccentric Saturnian in the habitable zone. Planet d is a super jovian at Jupiter-like distances, which was the first found at true Jupiter distances and still the exoplanet discovered with dopplar spectrometry with the largest known semi-major axis. The distant outer star causes planet d's axis to flip on its axis every million years. Planet d in turn causes the other planets to flip, including its star. The axis tilt of transiting planet e should be determined at some point. "Bode's law" predicts four undiscovered planets.
  • HD 69830 System - First planetary system found that does not have a Jupiter-sized planet around a normal star (K0 spectrum). Contains 3 Neptunians and the first discovered asteroid belt that is like the size and age as the Sun's. The debris from this belt that was detected was from the breakup of an asteroid, is 20 times as massive as our own, and would cause zodiacal lights 1000 times brighter than we see from Earth. The smallest and outermost planet may be a 10 ME super Earth, is within the habitable zone, and is an inner shepherd for the asteroid belt. Halo 3 features a fictitious moon around this planet.
  • 40 Eridani System - Triple star which is Gene Roddenberry's favored location for Spock's home planet of Vulcan. While no planet has been discovered in this sysem yet, it has been selected as a target for the SIM Planet quest when launched in 2015 for signs of a habitable planet.

Dynamical and Observational Constraints on Additional Planets in Highly Eccentric Planetary Systems

http://fr.arxiv.org/abs/0706.1962
Robert A. Wittenmyer, Michael Endl, William D. Cochran, Harold F. Levison
(Submitted on 13 Jun 2007)

Abstract: Long time coverage and high radial velocity precision have allowed for the discovery of additional objects in known planetary systems. Many of the extrasolar planets detected have highly eccentric orbits, which raises the question of how likely those systems are to host additional planets. We investigate six systems which contain a very eccentric (e>0.6) planet: HD 3651, HD 37605, HD 45350, HD 80606, HD 89744, and 16 Cyg B. We present updated radial-velocity observations and orbital solutions, search for additional planets, and perform test particle simulations to find regions of dynamical stability. The dynamical simulations show that short-period planets could exist in the HD 45350 and 16 Cyg B systems, and we use the observational data to set tight detection limits, which rule out additional planets down to a few Neptune masses in the HD 3651, HD 45350, and 16 Cyg B systems.

  • HD 3651 System - A system with planets and a distant brown dwarf that may act like a "Nemesis".
  • HD 37605 System - Contains the first exoplanet discovered by the Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET), which was the third most eccentric planet found, ranging from Hot Jupiter distance to Mercury-like distance.
  • HD 45350 System - Contains a highly eccentric planet which was recently studied to determine what other planets could exist in the system.
  • HD 80606 System - Contains a highly eccentric planet which was recently studied to determine what other planets could exist in the system.
  • HD 89744 System - Contains a highly eccentric planet which was recently studied to determine what other planets could exist in the system.
  • 16 Cygni System - A hierarchical triple star system. Has one of the first highly eccentric Jovians discovered around the "outer" star B. Recent calculations show that a short period planet could exist around the same star, but none up to as large as Neptune could exist elsewhere.

28 Planets Announced in May 2007 AAS

List of planets announced at the Astronomical Astronomical Society media briefing May 28 2007. This list includes all the planets discovered by the California and Carnegie Planet Search team and the Anglo-Australian Planet Search team for the past year. A total of 28 new exoplanets is the largest amount announced at one time, adding 12% to the number of known planets since the previous year to make the total known 236.

  • HD 86081 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 187123 System - System containing one of the earlier discovered Hot Jupiters (similar to 51 Peg b) and that had early indications of an outer planet. The confirmation of this massive distant eccentric jovian was announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing, along with 27 other exoplanets.
  • HD 14810 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 185269 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 33283 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 17156 System - Star system containing a planet discovered by dopplar spectrometry method and later found by amateurs to transit. At the time, it smashed the records for the furthest transiting planet (period of 21 d) and most eccentric orbit. A second, unconfirmed planet has also been proposed for this system.
  • HD 224693 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 11964 System - Sunlike star with two eccentric gas giants detected in 2005. The outermost one was retracted but then re-confirmed as one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing. The inner most has half the mass of Saturn and is too hot for clouds. The outer one is cool and likely dominated by white water clouds. A middle planet may also exist.
  • HD 107148 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 73526 System - System with two large orbit-crossing Jovians locked in 1:2 resonance that would span the inner solar system to the asteroid belt. The second planet was one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 75898 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 231701 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 175541 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 99109 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 192699 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 210702 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 5319 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 159868 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 164922 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 170469 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 23127 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • Gliese 849 System - Contains the first long period exoplanet found around a red dwarf star using dopplar spectrometry. Also only the second Jupiter mass planet around a star less massive than half the Sun. Also the first confirmed Jupiter-sized planet at Neptune-like temperatures. There is evidense for a second planet.
  • HD 11506 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 66428 System - System that includes one of the 28 planets announced at the May 2007 AAS media briefing.
  • HD 154345 System - Closest solar system analog to date. Contains a Jupiter like planet at Jupiter like distances 4.18 AU in a circular orbit with no known giant planets orbiting inside it. The star is dimmer than the Sun and habitable region at Venus like distances.

Related Articles

http://exoplanets.org/aasjune07s/pr_280507.htm
http://www.spacetoday.net/articles_bycategory.php?cid=12
http://www.upi.com/NewsTrack/Science/2007/05/29/astronomers_find_new_planets/4706/ http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=a&id=5602
http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/05/29_exoplanets.shtml
http://sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2007/05/29/MNG9CQ336T1.DTL&type=science
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6699893.stm
http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/070528_exoplanet_report.html
http://www.reuters.com/article/scienceNews/idUSN2826900020070528
http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-na-exoplanets29may29,1,1274185.story?coll=la-news-science&ctrack=1&cset=true http://www.guardian.co.uk/space/article/0,,2089929,00.html

Five New Multicomponent Planetary Systems (Jan 2005)

Abstract
Steven S. Vogt , R. Paul Butler , Geoffrey W. Marcy , Debra A. Fischer ,Gregory W. Henry , Greg Laughlin ,2 Jason T. Wright, and John A. Johnson

ABSTRACT

We report Doppler measurements for six nearby G- and K-type main-sequence stars that show multiple low-mass companions, at least one of which has planetary mass. One system has three planets, the fourth triple-planet system known around a normal star, and another has an extremely low minimum mass of 18 M⊕. HD 128311 (K0 V) has two planets (one previously known) with minimum masses (M sin i) of 2.18MJ and 3.21MJ and orbital periods of 1.26 and 2.54 yr, suggesting a possible 2 : 1 resonance. For HD 108874 (G5 V), the velocities reveal two planets (one previously known) having minimum masses and periods of (M sin ib = 1.36MJ, Pb = 1.08 yr) and (M sin ic = 1.02MJ, Pc = 4.4 yr). HD 50499 (G1 V) has a planet with P = 6.8 yr and M sin i = 1.7MJ, and the velocity residuals exhibit a trend of -4.8 m s-1 yr-1, indicating a more distant companion with P > 10 yr and minimum mass of 2MJ. HD 37124 (G4 IV–V) has three planets, one having M sin i = 0.61MJ and P = 154.5 days, as previously known. We find two plausible triple-planet models that fit the data, both having a second planet near P = 840 days, with the more likely model having its third planet in a 6 yr orbit and the other one in a 29 day orbit. For HD 190360, we confirm the planet having P = 7.9 yr and M sin i = 1.5MJ as found by the Geneva team, but we find a distinctly noncircular orbit with e = 0.36 ± 0.03, rendering this not an analog of Jupiter as had been reported. Our velocities also reveal a second planet with P = 17.1 days and M sin i = 18.1 M⊕. HD 217107 (G8 IV) has a previously known "hot Jupiter" with M sin i = 1.4MJ and P = 7.13 days, and we confirm its high eccentricity, e = 0.13. The velocity residuals reveal an outer companion in an eccentric orbit, having minimum mass of M sin i > 2MJ, eccentricity e ∼ 0.5, and a period P > 8 yr, implying a semimajor axis a > 4 AU and providing an opportunity for direct detection. We have obtained high-precision photometry of five of the six planetary host stars with three of the automated telescopes at Fairborn Observatory. We can rule out significant brightness variations in phase with the radial velocities in most cases, thus supporting planetary reflex motion as the cause of the velocity variations. Transits are ruled out to very shallow limits for HD 217107 and are also shown to be unlikely for the prospective inner planets of the HD 37124 and HD 108874 systems. HD 128311 is photometrically variable with an amplitude of 0.03 mag and a period of 11.53 days, which is much shorter than the orbital periods of its two planetary companions. This rotation period explains the origin of periodic velocity residuals to the two-planet model of this star. All of the planetary systems here would be further constrained with astrometry by the Space Interferometry Mission.

  • HD 128311 System - An orange dwarf star with two jovians (a Jupiter analog detected in 2005 and an eccentric giant in the outer habitable zone) possibly in 1:2 resonance and a dusk disk detected by Spitzer.
  • HD 108874 System - System with two Jovians that could have bands of white water clouds. The inner planet is in a circular orbit and enjoy's Earth-like heat. Its second planet, which was announced with four other new multiplanet systems in 2005, is in an eccentric orbit that would span our solar system's inner asteroid belt.
  • HD 217107 System - Contains the first discovered moderately eccentric Hot Jupiter. Its outer planet was suspected when the inner one was discovered and confirmed with four other new multiplanet systems in 2005. Outer planet is highly eccentric and skirts the outer edge of the habitable zone.
  • HD 50499 System - Star system with a cold eccentric water-cloud jovian and an unconfirmed outer planet which was discussed when the Carnegie team announced 5 new multiplanet system components in 2005.
  • HD 37124 System - The fourth triple planet system discovered around a normal star, the last one announced with 4 other multiplanet components in 2005. A Sunlike star with Jovian planets that received Venus-like, Mars-like, and Asteroid Belt-like radition from their stars. Simulations showed that no terrestrial planets could form between the Venus-like and Mars-like Jovian planets.
  • HD 190360 System - (aka Gliese 777) Outer planet of the primary star was initially believed to be a Jupiter analog, but later found to be eccentric (its apastron is at Jupiter-like distance). Its second planet was the fourth Neptunian discovered and was announced with four other "second" planets in 2005.

Spitzer Sees Dust Around 6 Stars With Planets

(Dec 2004)
For the first time, dust has been detected around systems that have confirmed planets. Six such systems were announced together.

  • HD 117176 System - One of the six extrasolar systems known to have planets to be first shown to also have a dust disk by Spitzer.
  • HD 33636 System - One of the six extrasolar systems thought to have planets to be first shown to also have a dust disk by Spitzer. The "planet" was later shown to be a star.
  • HD 50554 System - One of the six extrasolar systems known to have planets to be first shown to also have a dust disk by Spitzer.
  • HD 52265 System - One of the six extrasolar systems known to have planets to be first shown to also have a dust disk by Spitzer. Planet independently discovered by CORALIE and Carnegie teams and is roughly Jupiter-sized in a hot eccentric orbit.
  • HD 82943 System - Yellow dwarf with two large orbit-crossing Jovians locked in 1:2 orbital resonance that would span the inner solar system, which were disccovered by the Swiss team by 2001. The planets have nearly identical mass (1.8 MJ). Shown to have a dust disk by Spitzer.
  • HD 128311 System - An orange dwarf star with two jovians (a Jupiter analog detected in 2005 and an eccentric giant in the outer habitable zone) possibly in 1:2 resonance and a dusk disk detected by Spitzer.

Related Articles

http://www.nasa.gov/home/hqnews/2004/dec/HQ_04390_hubble_spitzer.html
http://www.space.com/scienceastronomy/planet_formation_041209.html
http://www.astronomy.com/asy/default.aspx?c=a&id=2648
http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn6780
http://skytonight.com/news/3309801.html?page=1&c=y
http://www.signonsandiego.com/news/science/20041209-1438-ca-buildingplanets.html

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