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Transiting Exoplanets

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Exoplanetary Scratchpad

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List of transiting exoplanets. See also Transiting Planet Records. See also Transiting Planet Types. See also Transiting Planets by Discovery.

Transiting Exoplanets By Discovery Project

Discovered By Non-Transit Method

  • Gliese 436 System (2004) - The second known red dwarf planetary system. Contains one of the first Neptunians discovered. Planet b temporarily later found to be the smallest exoplanet (about Uranus' diameter, though over 50% its mass) known to transit its host star and is currently the nearest (33 ly). Its temperature (712K) was measured to be higher than what it would be purely from radiation (520K), perhaps due to a greenhouse effect, somewhat higher than Venus. It was originally thought to have a layer of "hot ice", water solidified due to high pressures. It turned out that it was larger than thought and hot ice was not needed. It could still be a rocky super-Earth. It was later found to have a remarkably low levels of Methane and high levels of Carbon Monoxide for its 800K temperature. Possible explanations include Methane being changed into hydrocarbon polymers due to its star's ultraviolet radiation, CO being drafted upwards with winds, or observational defects. It's significant eccentricity suggests a possible neighboring planet. Planet c was announced to be the smallest known exoplanet (1.5 Earth's diameter), but was later retracted because variations in transit timing of the first planet did not occur and the proposed orbit would be unstable. It is still thought that a second planet of some kind is possible in the system.
  • HD 17156 System - Star system containing a planet discovered by dopplar spectrometry method and later found by amateurs to transit. At the time, it smashed the records for the furthest transiting planet (period of 21 d) and most eccentric orbit. A second, unconfirmed planet has also been proposed for this system.


Discovered by OGLE

Planets discovered during one of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiments which searches in the Galactic bulge.

  • OGLE-TR-10 System - Contains a bloated Hot Jupiter expected to be losing its atmosphere. Noted for its similarity to the first transiting exoplanet. Thought to not be so bloated, but then confirmed to really be bloated. Found to have the lowest measured surface gravity of any of the transiting exoplanets, considerably less than Earth. 5th confirmed OGLE planet.
  • OGLE-TR-56 System - Contains first planet discovered by transit and later confirmed by Dopplar Spectroscopy (rather than the other way around). The first OGLE planet confirmed with the Dopplar method. It is 6000 ly away, 10 times as far as any previous known planet, in a different arm of the galaxy. Also the first Very Hot Jupiter discovered. It may meet its doom in less than a million years. Planet has one of the first two ground-detected atmospheres. Has an atmosphere hotter than any other measured so far. Unlike other hot Jupiters observed, it is way too hot for clouds of silicon or iron to form which would keep it dark.
  • OGLE-TR-111 System - Has the first OGLE-detected transiting "normal" Hot Jupiter (the others had unusually short periods). Data suggests the presense of a second planet, which, if confirmed, would make this the first system with more than one transiting planet.
  • OGLE-TR-113 System - A binary orange dwarf star 1800 ly away in a crowded star field in Carina. It contains the second discovered Very Hot Jupiter (34 hours, 0.023 au, 1.3 MJ) and one of the first discovered transiting planets. At one time it was the only known transiting Hot Jupiter with a surface gravity greater than Jupiter's. Between 2002 and 2009, its transit times were found to shorten by 60 ms per earth year. This indicates that it is slowly spiraling towards its sun, the first exoplanet found to be doing this, and may get ripped apart by its star in 1.4 million years, when its period is reduced to 10.8 hours. An alternate explanation may be that an unseen planetary companion is causing the timing differences.
  • OGLE-TR-132 System - Has the third discovered Very Hot Jupiter, validating the believability of the first one found.
  • OGLE-TR-182 System - Contains the 6th discovered OGLE transiting planet. It is considered a typical hot jupiter.
  • OGLE-TR-211 System - Contains the 7th discovered OGLE transiting planet. Has 20% greater radius than Jupiter and is thus classified as an inflated hot jupiter.
  • OGLE2-TR-L9 System - First planet discovered around a rapidly rotating hot star and the hottest star with planets. Was detected by students while testing a method for investigating light fluctuations in the OGLE database. An inflated hot super Jupiter. Nicknamed "ReMeFra-1" for its discoverers.

Discovered By TrES

Planets found with the Trans-Atlantic Exoplanet Survey (TrES), an effort involving the "Sleuth" telescope at Caltech's Palomar Observatory in San Diego County, the Planet Search Survey Telescope (PSST) at Lowell Observatory near Flagstaff, Arizona, and the "STellar Astrophysics and Research on Exoplanets (Stare) telescope in the Canary Islands.

  • GSC 02652-01324 System - Contains the first transiting exoplanet discovered with the TrES amateur equipment and second transiting exoplanet close enough to have its atmosphere studied. It is the first Hot Jupiter that had the expected radius. Was the one of the first two exoplanets to have its light separated from its host star.
  • GSC 03549-02811 System - Contains TrES-2, which was the most massive nearby transiting planet until the discovery of Hat-P-2 b. It has a large radius for a planet not considered inflated. A large ground-based telescope method of observation was pioneered on this planet. Since its in Keplar's field of view, it was observed by it as a test subject and dubbed Kepler1b. A second planet is possibly responsible for fluctuations in the first's inclination. Kepler determined that it is the darkest known planet, blacker than coal, due to its extremely low dimming and brightening detected during transits. It would appear black except for some faint red tinge. This conflicts with current theories, which thought that a Hot Jupiter could only get as dark as Mercury. It appears that the planet is too hot for reflective clouds to form and instead its atmosphere contains light-absorbing chemicals. An off-the-cuff nickname Erebus (Greek god of darkness) has been suggested. It was also the first planet whose phases have been detected.
  • GSC 03089-00929 System - Has planet TrES-3, the most massive transiting Very Hot Jupiter planet. Planet has one of the first two ground-detected atmospheres. A large ground-based telescope method of observation was pioneered on this planet.
  • GSC 02620-00648 System - Contains the transiting planet TrES-4, the largest (volume) exo-planet at the time of its discovery, orbiting a sub-giant star.

Discovered By WASP Project

Planets discovered during the UK-led SuperWASP (Wide Angle Search for Planets) program (see articles [1] [2]).

  • WASP-1 System - Has the first planet detected by the WASP program, which is the third "inflated" Hot Jupiter detected, which suggested these planets were fairly common. It was nicknamed "Garafía-1" after the municipality that hosts the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory. Was the largest known exoplanet for about a year. Shows signs of atmospheric blow-off.
  • WASP-2 System - Contains second planet discovered by WASP program. This planet is a rather heavy transiting planet, has a large rocky core, and conforms to present models (in contrast to WASP-1). One of the 6 out of 27 planets analyzed by the WASP team found to orbit backwards around its star in 2010. Shows signs of atmospheric blow-off.
  • WASP-3 System - One of three systemss discovered by Super WASP containing a transiting planet so close to its star that it is evaporating. Like the other two, WASP-4 and 5, it is incapable of radiating away heat from its star and instead swells up to significantly larger than Jupiter. This is a planet 81% more massive than Jupiter with 13% larger radius going around in just less day 2 days. Its transit time varies by up to 3 minutes, which indicates that a further planet may be in this system. This would be a further Neptunian planet and would be the first exoplanet detected by measuring eclipse timing deviations of an earlier discovered planet (Transit Timing Variation method). Further observations are needed to confirm the planet, but the best fit is that it is in 2:1 resonance with the larger planet.
  • WASP-4 System - One of three systemss discovered by Super WASP containing a transiting planet so close to its star that it is evaporating.
  • WASP-5 System - One of three systems discovered by Super WASP containing a transiting planet so close to its star that it is evaporating. Found to orbit in the same manner as its star's rotation, while 6 out of 27 planets analyzed by the WASP team were found to orbit backwards around its star in 2010. Has a candidate planet detected by the Transit Timing Variation method.
  • WASP-6 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • WASP-7 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • WASP-8 System - One of the 6 out of 27 planets analysed by the WASP team found to orbit backwards around its star in 2010.
  • WASP-9 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • WASP-10 System - System that contains a super Jupiter around an orange star. At first believed to be inflated, but later found to be smaller. Has a density similar to the moon. Has a candidate planet detected by the Transit Timing Variation method.
  • WASP-11 System - Known as HAT-P-10 and WASP-11.
  • WASP-12 System - The shortest period transiting Hot Jupiter known and the first carbon-rich planet ever found (more Carbon than Oxygen). One of the two largest known planets at 1.79 Jupiter radii. Hottest known exoplanet at time of its discovery. Planet is being ripped apart by star. It is stretched in the shape of a rugby ball and leaves a ring around its star. Huge cloud of material detected around the planet containing elements never before detected on an exoplanet. It has much more methane than water vapor. It may produce shock waves as it plows through its star's stellar wind (the first evidence of shocks around an exoplanet, like Earth and Saturn's bowshocks), possibly produced by a strong planetary magnetic field. This could protect its atmosphere from being stripped away. It could have a diamond core and other terrestrial planets in system would have black spots on them and also be carbon based.
  • WASP-13 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • WASP-14 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • WASP-15 System - One of the 6 out of 27 planets analysed by the WASP team found to orbit backwards around its star in 2010.
  • WASP-16 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • WASP-17 System - An F6 type star which has the first exoplanet discovered in a retrograde orbit. Also the largest known exoplanet at 1.74 RJ and 0.5 JM. Discovered by transit. It may be "flipping" its star's axis. Orbit hints at a near planetary collision in its early years. One of the 6 out of 27 planets analyzed by the WASP team found to orbit backwards around its star in 2010. It was found to be abundant in CO, depleted in water and methane. It lacks a prominent stratosphere and has efficient day-night energy circulation.
  • WASP-18 System - A hot F6 star that has Super Jupiter that is only 2.5 stellar radii from its host star. It may perish soon once it reaches its star's roche limit, but astronomers are puzzled why it hasn't already. Because it orbits much faster than its star rotates, tidal effects should be causing it to fall inwards. Further observations should reveal its rate of decay. Has the shortest period of any Hot Jupiter at the time of its discovery (22hours).

Discovered By SWEEPS Project

Planets detected by the SWEEPS Project (Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search), which scanned for transiting planets in the region of the Galactic Bulge. Because these stars tend to be so distant and faint, a precise measurement for the planets' mass and radius is not possible. Several unconfirmed planets detected by this survey are "Ultra Short Period Planets", which can only exist around small Red Dwarves (such as Sweeps 10). The names of the stars and planets are identical for these systems.

  • SWEEPS-04 System - Hot Super Jovian detected 8500 parsecs away in the galactic bulge. One of only 2 transit candidates bright enough to be confirmed with radial velocity technique.
  • SWEEPS-11 System - Super Very Hot Jovian detected 8500 parsecs away in the galactic bulge. One of only 2 transit candidates bright enough to be confirmed with radial velocity technique.

Discovered by HAT Project

Planets discovered by the Hungarian Automated Telescope, a network of six small robotic telescopes, four at Arizona's Wipple Observatory and two atop Hawaii's Mauna Kea.

  • HAT-P-1 System - A stellar binary believed to contain the planet with the biggest known diameter and the least dense. This would have been only the second planet with such a low density. Later measurements showed it wasn't that inflated, and has the expected radius for a highly irradiated core-less Hot Jupiter.
  • HAT-P-2 System - Hat-P-2b (aka HD 147506b) is the most massive measured exoplanet discovered that is clearly not a Brown Dwarf and the first transiting Hot Super Planet discovered. It is the first known transiting planet with a significantly eccentric orbit and experiences significant seasons. It briefly held the record of furthest out transiting planet.
  • HAT-P-3 System - A heavy-element rich planet transiting a metal rich K dwarf star. Its small size 0.89 JR for its mass 0.6 MJ indicates it has a rocky core.
  • HAT-P-4 System - A low-density inflated Hot Jupiter around a metal-rich star. Its presumed high level of heavy elements presents a challenge for explaining Inflated Hot Jupiters. Perhaps it has both a dense core and an inflated radius?
  • HAT-P-5 System - A Jupiter-like Hot Jupiter transiting a bright star.
  • HAT-P-6 System - An inflated Hot Jupiter (1.33 JR) around a bright F-type star. It's Jupiter-like mass (1.06 MJ) is higher than the other 5 low-density inflated Hot Jupiters known at the time of its discovery in 2007. Its star is one of the most metal-poor ones hosting a transiting planet. A small dense core is expected.
  • HAT-P-7 System - Contains a transiting hot Jupiter. This planet was used as a test for the Kepler mission, which was able to detect the planet's occulation, as well as evidence of phases. It was found to be orbiting backwards only a day after the first retrograde exoplanet WASP-17b was announced. Very little of its heat is transported to its night side. There is some evidence for a planet further out that may be responsible for its orbit. Observed by Kepler and also dubbed Kepler 2b.
  • HAT-P-8 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • HAT-P-9 System - System that contains an inflated Hot Jupiter around a moderately faint F star.
  • HAT-P-10 System - Known as HAT-P-10 and WASP-11.
  • HAT-P-11 System - Star system with the second discovered transiting Super-Neptune and the least massive transiting planet known at the time. Also observed by Kepler and dubbed "Kepler 3b".
  • HAT-P-12 System - Contains a Saturn-sized transiting planet around a metal poor K star. It broke Saturn's record for the least massive Hydrogen/Helium dominated gas giant known to date. Being so hot, the planet is almost as large as Jupiter. Transit was detected by an amateur astronomer.
  • HAT-P-13 System - A star containing the first transiting planet (inner planet) in a multiplanet system. Important clues about dynamics and interior dynamics can be studied in this case. In 2010 it was found to be only one of the two out of all 79 known transiting exoplanetary systems that could not support a habitable Earth-like planet, since it is too close to the habitable stars.
  • HAT-P-14 System - HAT-P-14 System
  • HAT-P-15 System - HAT-P-15 System
  • HAT-P-16 System - HAT-P-16 System
  • HAT-P-17 System - HAT-P-17 System
  • HAT-P-18 System - HAT-P-18 System
  • HAT-P-19 System - HAT-P-19 System
  • HAT-P-20 System - A relatively nearby transiting exoplanetary system. It has a superjovian which has the second highest density of known planets at the time of its discovery.
  • HAT-P-21 System - HAT-P-21 System
  • HAT-P-22 System - HAT-P-22 System
  • HAT-P-23 System - HAT-P-23 System
  • HAT-P-24 System - HAT-P-24 System
  • HAT-P-25 System - HAT-P-25 System
  • HAT-P-26 System - Template:HAT-P-26 System

Discovered by COROT Satelite

Planets discovered by the European COROT satelite, which is intended to be able to detect Earth-sized planets.

  • CoRoT-1 System (May 07) - Contains the first transiting planet found by the French COROT mission. It was discovered during a test run and promises to be the first of many detected. One of the largest exoplanets found (and least dense), it has about Jupiter's mass, but 50% more diameter. The planet later became the first exoplanet whose phases were detected from Earth.
  • CoRoT-2 System (Dec 07) - A younger version of the Sun with a transiting Inflated Hot Super Jupiter 880ly away. This planet has been used to identify star spots on its surface. It was found to be blasted with x-rays 100,000 times more powerful than the Earth is by the Sun, which is blasting 5 million tons of matter of the planet into space every second. The planet is unusually inflated for its distance. The system is believed to be 100 and 300 Million years old, young, but fully formed. The planet is 3 times as massive as Jupiter and orbits the planet about 10 Earth-Moon distances away. Its proximity may be speeding up its star, keeping its magnetic field active, and maintaining its volatility.
  • CoRoT-3 System (Oct 08) - A star with possibly the most massive planet known at 20 Jupiters and most dense at about Jupiter's radius. The planet is technically classified as a brown dwarf, but they haven't ruled out it being a planet. It could be the first of a class of massive planets orbiting stars more massive than the Sun. It's the first object found with a period of less than ten days greater than 12J and less than 70J.
  • CoRoT-4 System (Jul 08) - Sunlike star containing the first known transiting planet that has the same period as its star. Also the second longest period known transiting planet from its star of 9.2 days.
  • CoRoT-5 System (Jul 08) - The first planet discovered in the anti-galactic-center field of view of the CoRoT satellite. It is a white main sequence star (class F) that contains a half-Jupiter mass hot Jupiter.
  • CoRoT-6 System (Jul 08) - The first planet discovered in the anti-galactic-center field of view of the CoRoT satellite. It is a white main sequence star (class F) that contains a half-Jupiter mass hot Jupiter.
  • CoRoT-7 System (Jul 08) - A sunlike star about 500 light years away with two Hot Super Earths (and possibly a third), including the first detected transiting Super-Earth. It a diameter about twice that of the Earth. First exoplanet with evidence of a solid surface and does not possess a thick atmosphere. Because its star is active, its mass is somewhat uncertain (2.3 to 8.5 ME), which makes it unclear if the planet actually has a solid surface. Also the closest exoplanet to its star known and has the smallest orbit period (0.85 Earth Days). Likely the first Super-Io discovered (due to slight eccentricity) and the first gas giant remnant core found. Has temperature of 1000-1500C. Planet c is a larger Neptunian orbiting further away and does not transit.
  • CoRoT-8 System - Contains a transiting planet.
  • CoRoT-9 System - First temperate transiting Jupiter discovered. An 80% Jupiter Mass planet orbiting at a Mercury-like distance. Temperature could be between -20 to 160 C. Liquid water in the form of water clouds could exist. If its too hot, it could be cloudless. A moon covered by ice or liquid oceans could be around it, depending on its temperature.
  • CoRoT-10 System (Jun 10) - One of seven transiting exoplanet systems discovered by CoRoT announced in Jun 2010. Has an extremely eccentric orbit that causes a tenfold difference in stellar radiation (250 to 600 C) over its 13 day period.
  • CoRoT-11 System (Jun 10) - One of seven transiting exoplanet systems discovered by CoRoT announced in Jun 2010. It is the third exoplanet discovered around an extremely rapidly rotating star, which spins in under 2 days, compared to the sun's 26 days.
  • CoRoT-12 System (Jun 10) - One of seven transiting exoplanet systems discovered by CoRoT announced in Jun 2010. Orbits close to its star. A bloated Hot Jupiter, its diameter is 150% that of Jupiter's.
  • CoRoT-13 System (Jun 10) - One of seven transiting exoplanet systems discovered by CoRoT announced in Jun 2010. Smaller than Jupiter, but twice as dense, suggesting a massive rocky core.
  • CoRoT-14 System (Jun 10) - One of seven transiting exoplanet systems discovered by CoRoT announced in Jun 2010. Has a similar size to Jupiter, but is 7.5 times as massive and 6 times as dense. This is only the second such very hot planet discovered.
  • CoRoT-15 System (Jun 10) - Transiting Brown Dwarf discovered by CoRoT along with 7 transiting exoplanets around different stars. It is 60 times as massive as Jupiter.
  • CoRoT-16 System (Jun 11) - Contains a transiting Hot Jupiter, one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011. One of two planets with highly elongated found in the batch, and will challenge theorists on how it survives on such an orbit.
  • CoRoT-17 System (Jun 11) - Contains a hot Jupiter, one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011. The star is 10 Billion years old - twice that of the Sun - and the oldest host-star in the batch.
  • CoRoT-18 System (Jun 11) - Contains a hot Jupiter, one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011. The host star is only 600 Million years old, the youngest host star in the batch.
  • CoRoT-19 System (Jun 11) - Contains a transiting Hot Jupiter, one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011.
  • CoRoT-20 System (Jun 11) - Contains a transiting Hot Jupiter, one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011. One of two planets with highly elongated found in the batch, and will challenge theorists on how it survives on such an orbit.
  • CoRoT-21 System (Jun 11) - Contains a transiting Hot Jupiter, one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011.
  • CoRoT-22 System (Jun 11) - Contains one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011. Contains the only planet of the bunch slightly smaller than Saturn.
  • CoRoT-23 System (Jun 11) - Contains a transiting Hot Jupiter, one of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011.
  • CoRoT-24 System (Jun 11) - Contains two of the 10 new exoplanets announced by CoRoT team in June 2011. Contains two Neptunians, the only planets of the batch this small and the only multiplanet system in the batch. Further studies will attempt to find more planets.

Discovered by XO Project

Planets detected with light data collected by the XO Telescope, which was made by Peter McCullough with commercialy available parts. Amateur and professional astronomers cooperate to find these planets.

  • XO-1 System (May 06) - Transiting hot jupiter discovered with the use of backyard telescopes. It is about the same size of Jupiter and has a very small core. 10th discovered transiting planet. Its star was the most sun-like star with transiting planets at the time.
  • XO-2 System - Contains a transiting planet. The planet is a little more than half Jupiter's mass, but is inflated to just above its radius. It was the first planet found to have Potassium detected, which is an element long thought to a dominant source for opacity in hot Jupiters.
  • XO-3 System (May 07) - Planet is the first transiting object with mass on the borderline between being a planet and a Brown Dwarf. The largest known planet in a torch orbit at time of its discovery. Found to be inclined to its star 37degrees, while every other torch planet aligns with their star's equator. Heat received from star varies three-fold due to its eccentricity. Larger than models predict. Has a temperature inversion in its stratosphere.
  • XO-4 System (May 07) - System that contains an inflated Hot Jupiter.
  • XO-5 System (May 07) - Contains a transiting planet.
  • XO-6 System (May 07) - Contains a transiting planet.

Discovered by Kepler

mission discovery page Extra-solar visions thread300 Earth-like candidates2011 Year in Review

  • Kepler-4 System - One of first transiting exoplanets discovered by Kepler announced in a batch of 5 Jan 2010 (Kepler 4-9). This system has the lowest assigned Kepler number, as Kepler 1-3 had been discovered by earlier studies. The only Hot Neptunian in the initial batch and about 3.8 RE.
  • Kepler-5 System - One of first transiting exoplanets discovered by Kepler announced in a batch of 5 Jan 2010 (Kepler 4-9). It, like the others, is a hot Jupiter. Second hottest of the batch, it is likely quite dark. Its host is about the same temperature as the sun, but is larger and on its way to becoming a subgiant.
  • Kepler-6 System - One of first transiting exoplanets discovered by Kepler announced in a batch of 5 Jan 2010 (Kepler 4-9). It, like the others, is a hot Jupiter.
  • Kepler-7 System - One of first transiting exoplanets discovered by Kepler announced in a batch of 5 Jan 2010 (Kepler 4-9). It, like the others, is a hot Jupiter. It is the largest of the batch in diameter, its mass is 50% of Jupiter's, but its diameter is 50% greater than Jupiter, making its density that of styrofoam. This is the least dense planet found to date.
  • Kepler-8 System - One of first transiting exoplanets discovered by Kepler announced in a batch of 5 Jan 2010 (Kepler 4-9). It, like the others, is a hot Jupiter. It is the hottest of the initial batch.
  • Kepler-9 System - Contains the 6th planet found by Kepler and the first star containing multiple transiting planets. The first system where transit times noted to vary due to interaction between planets, pioneering the transit timing variations method of confirmation. Has a hot Super-Earth that could be used to test the core accretion theory and two Saturn-sized planets. The two giant planets could have pushed the super Earth towards the star, which was unable to get the gasses needed form a Jupiter sized planet as the dust near the star rapidly dispersed.
  • Kepler-10 System - An old sun-like star with two rocky Hot Super-Earths, b and a slightly larger outer c that needed to be confirmed with help of Spitzer. B is an airless Super-Earth covered in an ocean of magma with a high density, likely metallic. Its high density means its almost entirely composed of Silicate and metals. Has smallest measured diameter of any exoplanet (40% more than Earth, 4.5 Earth's mass, and nicknamed Vulcan by scientists) and is the first rocky exoplanet found by Kepler. Its daytime temperature is 1,500C, well over the melting point of Silicate and nearly that of Iron. The planet is glowing hot and lava pieces fly away from it like a cometary tail. Planet is similar to Corot-7b, but is around a more quiet star, making measurements more reliable, and thus this planet is the first certainly rocky planet discovered. Has circular orbit, so not likely a super-Io like that planet, instead considered a super-Mercury.
  • Kepler-11 System - System containing 6 transiting planets around a sunlike star. The system is too far away to be confirmed with dopplar spectrometry. Instead, the planets are close enough together that they were confirmed with Transit Timing Variation, which offered measurements for their mass and densities and compositions. The innermost five are Super-Earths and Neptunians and are compact and within Mercury-like distances, and are b (0.09 AU, 4 ME), c (0.10 AU, 13.5 ME), d (0.16 AU, 6.1 ME), e (0.19 AU, 8.4 ME), f (0.25 AU, 2.3 ME). The planets have surprisingly low density for such small planets and not likely rocky. The inner ones are likely mixture of rock/ice or rock/gas, while the outer three are so large for their mass that they have to have a lot of hydrogen/helium. Their outer shells are probably fluffy, while cores are rock hard. The outermost giant g is just outside Mercury's distance (0.46 AU, 1 MJ) and doesn't perturb neighbors enough for its mass to be calculated. They are all coplanar and have low eccentricities, none are in resonance, and the system is more compact than any other known system. Systems discovery prompted a briefing of Kepler's overall status.
  • Kepler-12 System - A system with planets discovered by the Kepler spacecraft.
  • Kepler-13 System - A system with planets discovered by the Kepler spacecraft.
  • Kepler-14 System - A system with planets discovered by the Kepler spacecraft.
  • Kepler-15 System - A system with planets discovered by the Kepler spacecraft.
  • Kepler-16 System - The first confirmed binary star found to have a planet revolving around both stars (a circumbinary planet, the previous one was uncertain and detected using astrometry). It is often compared to the Tattoine of Star Wars. It is a Saturn sized world thought to be of rocky and gaseous composition. It is at Venus-like distance from the center of gravity, but because the stars are so dim, lies outside the habitable zone and is a cold world.
  • Kepler-17 System - A system with planets discovered by the Kepler spacecraft.
  • Kepler-18 System - An unusual triple planet system around a very sun-like star discovered by Kepler. It contains a super-Earth and two outer Hot Neptunes which are in 1:2 resonance with each other. The outer two planets were verified via their gravitational interaction with each other, while the inner planet was only validated by ruling out most of the other things it could possibly be.
  • Kepler-19 System - System with two exoplanets discovered by Kepler, 690ly away. Planet b is a small Neptunian about 20 Earth masses and 2 Earth radii. It takes about 9 days to go around its star and has a surface temperature of 480C. Outer Planet c was discovered based on differences in transit timing (5 minutes) that it caused for Planet b. It is tilted relative to 'b', so it itself never transits. It is not massive enough to have its mass estimated. It could be a rocky planet on a circular 5-day orbit or a gas giant in an oblong 100 day orbit. First TTV detected planet confirmed that doesn't transit due to the fact that Kepler continuously observes the planet's transits, rather than stitches together several observations. Future observations with HARPs using radial velocity method will be used to pinpoint planet c's mass.
  • Kepler-20 System - An unusual 5 planet system (b-e-c-f-d) discovered by the Kepler spacecraft containing 3 Neptune-sized objects (b, c, d) and 2 Earth-sized objects (e, f), which are in alternating distances from the star, with the outermost one orbiting only in 78 days. Planet f has nearly the identical radius as Earth (1.03 RE), while planet e is the first sub-Earth planet (0.87 RE) discovered around a normal star, and were the smallest discovered yet at the time.
  • Kepler-21 System - One of the brightest systems in Kepler's field of vision (though not quite visible to the naked eye, the nearest Kepler system with a confirmed planet), also known as HD 179070, located 352 light years away. Kepler detected a 10 Earth mass and 1.6 Earth radii hot super-Earth orbiting 10 times nearer than Mercury does the Sun. Its temperature is about 2,960F.
  • Kepler-22 System - Contains the smallest planet in the habitable zone around a star at the time of its discovery by Kepler. The first around a sun-like star at Earth-like distances that is not probably tidally locked. The first potentially habitable planet confirmed (transits confirmed on other telescopes). Orbits around a sun-like star about every 290 days. It is about 2.4 times the radius of Earth. Its mass is difficult to measure and may be beyond the ability of modern telescopes (Keck will give it a try), so it has not been confirmed to be rocky yet (some planets the same size are either). It was the first of 54 habitable zone planet candidates to be independently confirmed. Depicted in art as blue with green clouds, the Scientific Exoplanets Renderer did not compute that it was habitable though. Its surface temperature is 76F, similar to a spring day on Earth.

Unconfirmed

Kepler Objects of Interest:

  • KOI 55 System - A hot class B sub-dwarf star (also called KIC 05807616) that has completed it expansion phase and retracted. Kepler detected two unconfirmed planets .01 and .02 at epistellar distances that apparently survived the expansion in-tact. It is thought that their outer layers were stripped away, leaving only their cores. It is thought that only massive planets could survive this, as terrestrial planets would be completely disintegrated. Engulfing planets like these may have hastened the loss of the star's outer layers and may be the only way of producing a star of this type. The planets were not detected using transit, but rather their reflected light may be enhancing the star's brightness, which also varies over time. The planets would have diameters of 76% and 87% that of Earth if they are rocky.
  • KOI 74 System - Contains one of two of a new class of objects discovered in early Kepler data that is too hot to be a planet (12,000K), but too small to be a star (0.4 RJ), and is actually hotter than its host star (10,000K). Possibly a white dwarf star that lost much of its mass to be Jupiter sized, rather than Earth sized. Mass measurements are needed.
  • KOI 81 System - Contains one of two of a new class of objects discovered in early Kepler data that is too hot to be a planet (13,500K), but too small to be a star (0.9 RJ), and is actually hotter than its host star (10,000K). Possibly a white dwarf star that lost much of its mass to be Jupiter sized, rather than Earth sized. Mass measurements are needed.
  • KOI 314 System - Potentially multi-planet system containing the second most Earth-like Kepler candidate planet as of Feb 2011, KOI 314.02, which is three times the diameter of the Earth and in the near-habitable zone.
  • KOI 326 System - Red dwarf system containing what was at first thought the most Earth-like Kepler candidate planet, KOI 326.01. Thought to have average temperature less than the boiling point and a mass a big or smaller than the Earth, but was later found to be somewhat warmer and larger.
  • KOI 730 System - Possible four-planet Kepler candidate system containing two planets that share an orbit, all planets being locked 8:6:4:3 orbital resonances. It was initially thought they were in a 6-4-4-3 resonance, with two planets sharing an orbit, presumably permanently 120 degrees apart. This had sparked comparisons with the theoretical Theia, which was thought to share Earth's orbit, then collided with it to form the moon.

Potentially Habitable KOI:

  • KOI 736 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011, unconfirmed. It was judged to be the planet most similar to Earth in the Habitable Zone Index in 2011. It is 1,750 light years away and has an estimated surface temperature of 86F. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 494 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 784 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 610 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 947 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 817 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 1361 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 463 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 701 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 227 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 255 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011, unconfirmed. Judged most likely to support life in the Habitable Zone Index. It is a warm super-Earth 1,169 light years away with a surface temperature of 86F. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 854 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 1026 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.
  • KOI 268 System - One of the 48 potentially habitable exoplanet Kepler candidates known in 2011. One of the initial 16 to have been rendered by the Scientific Exoplanet Renderer.

Discovered by MEarth Project

Wikipedia Project Page

  • GJ 1214 System - A red dwarf system containing the first exoplanet discovered by the MEarth project, which seeks to detect transiting Earth-like planets around nearby red dwarves, and the second transiting super-Earth. The planet is the first of a new class of planets with low mass and low density. It is between Earth and Neptune in radius and it could be a small Neptunian, a terrestrial with an outgassed atmosphere, or a water world. Its featureless spectrum (the first Super Earth atmosphere ever studied) suggests a heavy atmosphere choked with water steam or one with thick water clouds above it, making viewing the surface impossible (further studies should resolve this). It may be the coolest transiting planet detected. Its close proximity (under 50 ly) assures promising future observation.

Unsorted Systems

  • HD 189733 System- Planet b (the first nearby Very Hot Jupiter, originally thought to be inflated) is the nearest planet discovered using the transit technique (62.9 ly). This is the first exoplanet to have its temperature mapped and was nicknamed Bull's Eye for its hot spot that is significantly offset from the starward pole. It is also the first exoplanet for which scattered light in the upper atmosphere has been detected and the second exoplanet with water detected and first with Methane and then Carbon Dioxide detected. It later was the first exoplanet whose gasses were detected from Earth-based telescopes. It was also found to spin up its star and magnetically interact with it, causing stellar storms. Hubble found that its atmosphere was a uniform blue haze.
  • HD 209458 System - Has first discovered transiting planet which was nicknamed Osiris due to the comet-like tail detected and the first exoplanet around a normal star to have its mass directly measured. The planet may be losing its outer atmosphere, or magnetism may prevent the ions from escaping. They detected water in its atmosphere (they had failed earlier), the first time this has been done for any exoplanet. 2nd Exoplanet with detected organic compounds; like HD 189733b, it has water and carbon dioxide, but it has a lot more Methane. Tracking carbon molecules with dopplar spectrometry caused it to be the first exoplanet detected to have winds, which are raging at 5,000 to 10,000 km/h. This is believed to cause hotspots to appear at terminators rather than at the star-ward facing point.
  • HD 149026 System - Contains the first Saturn mass transiting planet. Also the first planet found with a dense core, leading credence to the core-accretion theory. Sometimes called a Super-Neptune, though it is not known if its core is rocky or icy. Also the first TEP discovered smaller than Jupiter. It was revealed to be as black as coal, twice as hot as any other known exoplanet, and hotter than some stars.
  • HD 80606 System - Multiple star system with a planet, which has a higher period (111 days) than any other known transiting planet and highest eccentricty (Halley's comet-like). Discovered in 2001, but found to transit in 2009. Its orbit brings it from epistellar distances to Earth-like distances. Planet is the first one for which changes in weather have been observed. Potassium was detected from the high wind regions of the exosphere. In 2010 it was found to be only one of the two out of all 79 known transiting exoplanetary systems that could not support a habitable Earth-like planet, since its elongated orbit would destabilize any such planets.
  • Lupus-TR-3 System - A typical hot jupiter somewhat less massive than Jupiter. Currently the faintest ground-based detected transiting planet.

For a list of properties for exoplanets discovered via transit, see the Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia list.

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