Worked examples
"Worked examples are a step-by-step demonstration of how to perform a task or solve a problem. Worked examples can be designed to help learners build procedural skills such as how to use a spreadsheet or strategic skills such as how to conduct a negotiation” (Clark & Mayer, 2011, p. 224). Work examples are effective when used for sales lessons, mathematic probability problems and justification, how to defend a personal stance, and how to correct operational challenges with equipment (Clark & Mayer, 2011). “Research studies are especially relevant to workforce learning goals that involve higher level cognitive tasks and problem solving such as consultative selling, financial analysis, troubleshooting, diagnosis, report writing, and many managerial tasks."

(Clark & Mayer, 2011, p. 226).  (Laura)

"Research since our second edition has focused on instructional methods you can use to maximize the benefits of worked examples. We organize the evidence into the following principles:

  • Principle 1: Fade from worked examples to problems
  • Principle 2: Promote self-explanations
  • Principle 3: Include instructional explanations of worked examples in some situations
  • Principle 4: Apply the multimedia principles to examples
  • Principle 5: Support learning transfer"

(Clark and Mayer, 2011, p. 228-229).  (Laura)

Worked examples are powerful methods to build new cognitive skills, and Clark and Mayer (2011) note; they are popular with students (p. 224). What's even more interesting is the proposed "Borrowing and Reorganizing Principle" of human learning. This principle suggests that the main path to building new knowledge in long-term memory is through imitating others. "Worked examples offer an especially efficient opportunity to borrow knowledge from others" (Clark and Mayer, 2011, p. 227). (Jackie Smith) 

Using the instructional tool called worked examples is an excellent instructional strategy to promote higher cognitive learning, long-term memory storage, and better cognitive retrieval of information (Clark & Mayer, 2011, Chapter 11).

Furthermore, using work example teaching techniques helps learners make stronger connections between existing learner knowledge and new learning material.

The unique weaning process that work example strategies use to promote learner self-efficacy is amazing to watch unfold as students master the individuals steps of any work example product used.

Again, one will use the synchronous chess learning tutorials to demonstrate the worked example principle.

Worked examples for each of the 15 tactical motifs is built into the lesson, demonstrating the entire tactical motif from beginning to the end.

Each worked example effectively addresses the three learning styles; the visual presentation of the worked example for the visual learner, each worked example is narrated for the audio learner, and the student can move the chess pieces as the work example is explained for the tactile learner. (Luis Gonzalez)

When the learner is given a step by step demonstration of all the task associated with a skill or problem and allowed to practice each step one at a time until they solve the problem their confidence level increases. By actively engaging the student worked examples promotes deeper processing of information. (Proctor Galloway)

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