West Nile virus
Virus classification
Group: Group IV ((+)ssRNA)
Family: Flaviviridae
Genus: Flavivirus
Species: West Nile virus

Template:Infobox Disease

Red River College

  • Course Name :: Prevention of Illness NURS - 3001
  • Time :: Fall 2008
  • Investigative Report :: West Nile Virus
  • Person A :: Yussef
  • Person B :: Karen
  • Person C :: Roxanne

WEB CT is DOWN :_( but as soon as it is up I will get those DOC files and finish our Prevention Report :) THEN I plan to send you both a COPY by TOMORROW Mon. Oct 27, 2008. IF at all possible please read it and make any changes or comments or ANYTHING you feel could help us score higher :D AND e-mail me a copy back by ASAP. I will compile our final copy on TUESDAY and will drop it of in class on WED.

ID why the issue is a health concern

A, B, C

Canadian Perspective

not really sure if this what this means? West Nile Virus MONITOR

During the West Nile Virus season (May to October), the Centre for Food-borne, Environmental and Zoonotic Infectious Disease, Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), produces weekly West Nile Virus MONITOR reports and maps, summarizing West Nile Virus activity in Canada. West Nile Virus national surveillance is a collaborative effort between the Public Health Agency of Canada, provincial and territorial Ministries of Health, the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre, Health Canada's First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Canadian Blood Services, and Héma-Québec.

Surveillance information is reported to the Public Health Agency of Canada and updated every Monday. This delay may account for any discrepancies between the surveillance results posted on provincial/territorial web sites and the Agency's web site.


  • (???)

Direct & Indirect Cost

  • (???)some estimated costs on larviciding on word that I sent to you

Morbidity & Mortality Rates

  • (???)

Preventable Nature of the Disease

Preventable in 3 main ways: 1 education 2. Surveillance 3. Mosquito control (Shapiro & Micuci, 2003)

Easy ways to prevent WNV by decreasing mosquito bites by: reducing breeding waters, and wear protective sprays (Everson, 2005)



  • Incidence

  • Prevalence

  • Trends in the statistics


  • Location of Problem





Id & Description of Populations at Risk


  • '''Who is more likely to get sick after being infected with West Nile virus?'''

• People with weaker immune systems

• People with chronic diseases are at greater risk for serious health effects.

• overall risk of serious health effects increases with age,

• Persons of any age or health status can be at risk of serious health effects associated with West

Nile virus infection.

• Evidence of pregnant women should take immediate steps to reduce their risk of mosquito bites. If they develop symptoms of West Nile virus infection, they should call their doctor or health care provider right away.

• Can be passed on through breastmilk

' Gender differential- Severity of WNV Disease By Age*

Age in Years Asymptomatic West Nile Virus Non-Neurological Syndrome West Nile Virus

Neurological Syndrome Unclassified Positive Test

Results Total

 0 -   9	0	0	0	0	0

10 - 19 0 2 0 0 2

20 - 29 0 4 0 0 4

30 - 39 0 1 0 0 1

40 - 49 0 2 0 0 2

50 - 59 0 1 0 1 2

60 - 69 0 0 1 0 1

Over 70 0 0 1 0 1

Total 0 10 2 1 13

  • As of October 15, 2008.

Average Age - West Nile Virus Non Neurological Syndrome: 30

Average Age - West Nile Virus Neurological Syndrome: 75

WNV Disease by Gender*

Gender Asymptomatic West Nile Virus Non-Neurological Syndrome West Nile Virus Neurological Syndrome Unclassified Positive Test

Results Total

Male 0 3 2 1 6

Female 0 7 0 0 7

Total 0 10 2 1 13

  • As of October 15, 2008.



  • Ethnic/cultural background'---N/A--gap?

  • <u>Genetic Predispositioncan affect those that were born with weak immunity

  • <u>Occupations above in chart

  • Age Category above in chart

Risk Factors & Risk Conditions


  • Health Determinants - (all determinants from Shah, 2003)
  • INCOME AND SOCIAL for repellents/citronella products (Koren, Matsui & Bailey, 2003)
  • EDUCATION..... understand about "vectors & variables of WNV" (Kondro,2006)
  • EMPLOYMENT/WORKING CONDITONS....amount of time spent outdoor at dusk and dawn, protective clothing worn (Koren et al, 2003)
  • PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS.... live in area with large amount of rain, hot weather and lots of mosquitoes (Lessard, 2007)
  • PERSONAL HEALTH PRACTICES....use of repellent, protective clothing, avoid peak times of mosquitoes (Murray & Weir, 2005)
  • HEALTHY CHILD DEVELOPMENT... toxic effects of repellent use (Koren et al, 2003)
  • HEALTH SERVICES...screening of blood products and organ donors (Canadian Cancer Society, 2008)

  • Risk Factors

(all factors and conditions from Canadian cancer society, 2008) 1. bite from infected mosquito 2. Infected blood transfussion/organ donation

  • Risk Conditions

1. Chronic disease ie: cancer, diabetes, heart disease 2. Medical treatment that weakens immune system ie: chemo


A, B, C

  • Vaccination?

To be summarized


  • Level of Prevention?


What are the surveillance plans for this season?

Surveillance activities for this season will focus on birds, horses, mosquitoes and humans. Surveillance is done to detect the presence of the virus as early as possible in any given area so that communities can take steps to reduce their risk. Surveillance activities will vary by region depending on the level of West Nile Virus seen in the region in previous years, and provincial and local surveillance strategies.

What are the plans for mosquito surveillance?

Mosquito surveillance this year will depend on the level of anticipated or current West Nile virus activity in a particular area. In areas where West Nile virus has never been found, surveillance will likely focus on establishing which mosquito species are present and how many there are in the area.

In areas where West Nile virus has been found, mosquitoes may also be tested for West Nile virus. This information would help identify the role different species play in spreading the virus to birds, animals and people. It would also be used to determine if, where and how to best intervene to reduce the risk of infection.

What are the plans for human surveillance?

As in previous years, health care providers will watch for symptoms of West Nile virus infection in their patients. They will request laboratory tests where appropriate. They will also report all probable and confirmed cases of West Nile virus infection to local/provincial health authorities.

Human surveillance information is used in a number of important ways. Knowing that West Nile virus is in an area puts doctors and the general public on alert. It also provides more clues about who may be at risk for serious health effects from West Nile virus. In addition, human surveillance provides information to help ensure the safety of the blood supply in Canada. See the fact sheet West Nile Virus: Transmission through Blood for more information.


Where can people get information about West Nile virus?

The Public Health Agency of Canada and key stakeholders are providing general information and advice on reducing risks through brochures, posters, fact sheets, media briefings, news releases, Web sites and toll-free numbers.

People looking for information about West Nile activity in specific locations, including surveillance activities and proposed prevention and response plans, should contact their provincial or local health authority. If West Nile virus is detected in an area, health authorities will alert the local media and will provide the public with details on specific prevention and response measures.

Provincial and local health authorities are providing information to people whose jobs may put them at risk for West Nile virus infection. In addition, Health Canada has issued an Occupational Health Advisory.

Prevention and Response

What are the prevention and response plans for this season?

Prevention and response plans will vary across the country, depending on the level of risk. When West Nile virus is found in an area, provincial and municipal health authorities will make sure people get the information they need to reduce their risk. In some cases, local and provincial authorities may consider using pesticides to control mosquito populations.

Role of the PHN

will send to you by word through web ct for the rest of this B

  • Nursing Interventions

  • Administrative Role

WNV infection became a nationally reported disease in Canada on June 1st, 2003

-Cases should be reported ASAP to provincial/territorial public health authorities

-Reporting categories are defined as:

• Suspect case- meets the clinical criteria; in the absence of or pending diagnostic tests and in the absence of any other obvious cause

• Probable case- meets the clinical criteria: and at least one of the probable diagnostic test criteria.

• Confirmed case- meets the clinical criteria; and at least one of the confirmed diagnostic test criteria.

  • Societal Involvement

Functions of Societies & Agencies

1. Public health agency of Canada- infectious diseases 2. Government of Manitoba

both of these websites provide all pertinent information required in education, prevention and surveillance of wnv


A, B, C

  • Organization Supports

  • Prevention Strategies A gap that I thought of is whether or not employers provide protection or should they maybe enforce such preventions. did not find any data related to specific grps such as construction workers or landscapers


  • <u>Research


A, B, C

American College of Physicians. (2008). West Nile Virus Disease Retrieved Oct. 12, 2008, from

Canadian Cancer Society. (2008). The West Nile virus. Retrieved on October 10, 2008 from

Canadian Medical Association Journal. (2003). West Nile virus infection in 2002: Morbidity and mortality among patients admitted to hospital in southcentral Ontario Retrieved October 11, 2008, from

Community and Hospital Infection Control Association-Canada. (2008). Information about West Nile virus. Retrieved Oct. 10, 2008, from

Everson, K. (2006). West Nile virus up in 2005. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 174(1), p 21. Retrieved October 11, 2008 from EBSCO Host database.

Google Images (2008). Retrieved on October 11, 2008 from

Government of Manitoba. (2008). Manitoba health. West Nile virus. Retrieved on October 18, 2008 from

Health Canada. (2008). Scientific and regulatory basis for decision. Retrieved Oct. 11, 2008, from

Kondro, W. (2006), West Nile virus still a threat. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 175(6), p 570-571. Retrieved October 11, 2008 from EBSCO Host database.

Koren, G., Matsui, D., & Bailey, B. (2003). DEET-based insect repellents: safety implications for children and pregnant and lactating women. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 169(3), p 209-212. Retrieved October 11, 2008 from EBSCO Host database.

Lessard, S. (2007). West Nile rates soar in 2007. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 177(12), p1489. Retrieved October 11, 2008 from EBSCO Host database.

Manitoba spirited energy. (2007). Manitoba health West Nile virus program 2007:Planning document for municipalities Retrieved Oct. 11, 2008, from

Mapleleafweb. (2007). Government action on West Nile. Retrieved on October 21, 2008 from

Murray, S., & Weir, E. (2005). West Nile virus. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 173(5), p 484. Retrieved October 11, 2008 from EBSCO Host database.

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2005). News Release. Retrieved on October 21, 2008 from

Public Health Agency of Canada. (2008). Surveillance, education, prevention and response. Retrieved on October 18, 2008 from

Shah, C. P. (2003). Concepts, determinants and promotion of health. In public health and preventive medicine in Canada. (p. 18). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Shapiro, H., & Mucucci, S. (2003). Pesticide use for West Nile virus. Canadian Medical Association Journal.168(11) p 1427-1430. Retrieved October 11, 2008 from EBSCO Host database.

Stamler, L. L. & Yiu, L. (2008). Community health nursing; A Canadian perspective, Second edtion. Pearson Education Canada: Toronto.

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